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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: agh-   'to ail, fear, be depressed'

Semantic Fields: Fear, Fright; Sad


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ad-agor I fear GED
  aigthiu terror GED
  al adj fearful GED
Old English: æge/e(i)ge n.masc awe, terror; sorrow ASD/GED
  eg(e)sa/ægsa/ege n.masc awe, fear, terror GED/ASD/CDC
  eglan vb.wk to ail, afflict W7/ASD
  egle adj horrid, hateful, loathsome, troublesome AHD/ASD
  eglian/elan vb.wk to ail, pain, grieve, trouble GED/ASD
  oga n.masc fright GED
  oht n.str.fem persecution GED
  on-oegan vb.wk to fear GED
Middle English: aw(e)/agh(e)/aze n awe W7/CDC
  eghe/eye/ay(e)/eze n fear CDC
  eilen vb to ail W7
English: ail vb to give/suffer pain/unhealth AHD/W7
  awe n dread, profound/reverent fear AHD/W7
  Òin prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Saxon: egiso n.masc awe, terror GED
Middle Low German: achte n.str.fem persecution GED
  egelen vb to annoy W7
Old High German: agis/egis n.neut horror ASD
  agi(so) n.masc awe, fear, terror ASD/GED
  ahta n.str.fem persecution GED
  aki n.fem awe, terror GED
  egi n.fem awe, terror GED
  egisa n.fem awe, terror GED
  egis-lih adj awful, terrible GED
  egiso/ekiso n.masc awe, terror GED/ASD
Middle High German: ege n.fem awe, terror ASD
  egese/eise n.fem horror ASD
German: ekeln vb to ail, trouble; be disgusted ASD
Old Norse: agi n awe AHD/W7
  ogn n.fem awe, fright, terror GED
  Òin prop.n Oin (Lay of Regin dwarf) TPE
  ótti n.masc fear, dread LRC
Old Icelandic: agi n.masc awe, terror; discipline GED/ASD
  oast vb.wk to be afraid GED
  oegishjalmr n fearful helmet (transformed Fafnir into dragon) GED
  oegja vb.wk to frighten GED
Icelandic: agi n.masc terror; discipline ASD
Norwegian: egse n.neut agitation GED
Danish: ave n.masc/fem awe, terror; discipline ASD
Gothic: *af-agjan vb.wk.I to move, frighten GED
  *-agan vb.ptpr.VI to fear GED
  agei n.fem awe, terror ASD
  agis n.str.neut awe, fear, terror GED
  *agls adj disgraceful GED
  aglyan vb to molest ASD
  *ogan vb.ptpr to fear GED
  un-agein adv fearlessly GED
  usagjan vb.wk.I to frighten, terrify GED
Greek: áchnumai vb to mourn, be troubled GED
  áchomai vb to mourn, be sad GED
  áchos n pain, sorrow GED
  achos n.neut pain W7
  áchumai vb to mourn, be sad GED
  óis n snake GED
Sanskrit: áhis n snake GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
I=class 1
VI=class 6
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
ua=used as
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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