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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: akua-, more accurately ukua, eku-   'aqua, water, river'

Semantic Fields: Water; Brook, Stream, River


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ab n river LRC
Old English: æ-spring/æ-sprynge n.neut fountain, lit. water-spring ODE/ASD
  e(a)gor-stream n.masc current, lit. sea-stream LRC
  *eah/ea/æ n.fem aqua, river CDC/ASD
  *eget n ait CDC
  eg(or) n.fem sea, aqua ASD
  egor-here n.masc deluge, lit. water-host ASD
  ig(e) n.fem ait W7
  ig(e)oþ/iggaþ/iggoþ n.masc ait ASD
  igland n.neut island W7
Middle English: ait/æit/eyt n ait W7
  aqua n aqua AHD
  aquatique adj aquatic AHD
  ewer n ewer W7
  island n island W7
  sewer n sewer W7
English: ai(gh)t n islet, small island AHD/W7
  aqua-/aque-/aqui- pfx water LRC
  aqua n water; aqueous solution W7
  aquamarine n green/blue gem AHD/W7
  aquanaut n one who lives/works underwater AHD
  aquarelle n water-color painting AHD/W7
  aquarium n tank for aquatic creatures AHD/W7
  aquatic adj re: (growing/living in/on) water W7
  aquatint n etching process producing print like ink/wash drawing AHD
  aquavit n Scandinavian liquor AHD/W7
  aqueduct n water conduit AHD/W7
  aqueous adj re: water W7
  aquifer n layer of earth/stone/gravel yielding water AHD
  ewer n water pitcher AHD/W7
  gouache n type of paint AHD/W7
  island n land (smaller than continent) surrounded by water AHD/W7
  Rushey prop.n Marish locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  sewer n waste-water conduit AHD/W7
Old Frisian: a/e n aqua, river CDC
Dutch: eiland n island TLL
Old Saxon: aha n aqua, river CDC
Old High German: aha n river LRC
Middle High German: ahe n river CDC
German: Aa prop.n (name of) a river CDC
  Aquarell n.neut aquarelle LRC
  Aquarium n.neut aquarium LRC
Old Norse: ey n.fem island LRC
  eybarmr n.masc island surface LRC
  eyjarskeggi n.masc island inhabitant LRC
  eyland n.neut island W7
Icelandic: a n aqua, river CDC
  ey n ait ASD
  eyland n island ASD
  ægir n.masc the sea ASD
Norwegian: akvavit n aquavit W7
Danish: aa n brook CDC
  halvø n peninsula TLL
  ø n island TLL
Swedish: a n brook CDC
  aquavit n aquavit W7
  halvö n peninsula TLL
  ö n island TLL
Gothic: ahva n river LRC
Latin: a(c)quarius adj re: aqua W7
  aqua n.fem aqua W7
  aquaeductus n.masc aqueduct AHD
  aquamarina n seawater CDC
  aquarium n.neut aquarium W7
  aquaticus adj re: aqua CDC
  aquatio n.fem act of fetching water W7
  aquatus vb.ptc watered W7
  aquor, aquari vb to fetch water W7
  Oceanus, Oceani n.masc ocean LRC
Vulgar Latin: aquarium n.neut ewer W7
  exaquo, exaquare vb to drain W7
Medieval Latin: aqueus adj aqueous AHD
Portuguese: agua n aqua CDC
Spanish: agua n aqua LRC
Old French: aquatique adj aquatic AHD
  aqueduct n aqueduct CDC
  evier n.masc ewer, sink, sewer W7
Anglo-French: ewer n.masc ewer W7
Middle French: essewer vb to drain W7
  esseweur n.masc sewer W7
  seweur n.masc sewer W7
French: aquarelle n.fem aquarelle W7
  aquatinte n aquatint AHD
  aqueduc n.masc aqueduct CDC
  eau n.fem aqua CDC
  gouache n.fem gouache W7
Italian: acqua n.fem aqua W7
  acquarella n.fem aquarelle W7
  acquarello n.masc aquarelle W7/CID
  acquatinta n aquatint AHD
  acquerèllo n.masc aquarelle W7/CID
Old Prussian: ape n river LRC
Lithuanian: ùpe n river LRC
Hittite: ak(k)-/ek(k)- n drink LRC
Sanskrit: apas n waters LRC
Tokharian: yok n drink LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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