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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. an-   'there, other side'

Semantic Field: Side


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: oþer adj other W7
Middle English: andersith adv beforetime, previously OED
  anodir/anoþer/anothire adj/pron another MEV
  ender/endris/endyrs adj other, recently past OED
  other adj other W7
English: another adj/pron one other LRC
  other adj second, different, one of two/more AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ander/oder/other/or adj other CDC
Middle Dutch: ander adj other CDC
Dutch: ander adj other CDC
Old Saxon: andar/aðar adj other CDC
  oðar/oþar/oðer adj other CDC
Middle Low German: ander adj other CDC
Low German: ander adj other CDC
Old High German: andar/ander adj other CDC
Middle High German: ander adj other CDC
German: ander adj other CDC
  anders adj different LRC
  oder conj or TLL
Old Norse: annarr adj/pron other LRC
  endr adv else, again, formerly OED
Icelandic: annarr adj other CDC
Danish: anden adj other CDC
Swedish: annan adj other CDC
Gothic: andiz conj either OED
  anþar adj other, another LRC
Latin: alter adj other CDC
Portuguese: outro adj other CDC
Spanish: otro adj other CDC
Old French: altre/autre adj other CDC
French: autre adj other CDC
Proven├žal: altre/autre adj other CDC
Italian: altro adj other CDC
Old Prussian: antars adj other CDC
Lithuanian: añtras, antrà pron/adj other LRC
Latvian: otrs adj other CDC
Polish: on pron he, that CDC
  wtory adj second CDC
Czech: on pron he, that CDC
  úterý adj second CDC
Serbian: on pron he, that CDC
Old Church Slavonic: vutoru adj second CDC
  onu pron he, that CDC
Russian: vtorno- adj second CDC
  onu pron he, that CDC
Greek: eán, ên conj if LRC
  kán conj and if LRC
Sanskrit: *ana/anya dem.pron that CDC
  an(ya)tara adj other CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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