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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ant-s   'brow, front, anterior'

Semantic Field: Forehead

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: etan n forehead LRC
English  
Old English: and-/ond- pfx to, against, opposite; from GED
  and prep on, against GED
  end adv rather, earlier GED/IEW
  ende n.masc area GED
  ende n.str.masc/neut end GED
  ende-leas adj endless GED
  oþ- pfx until GED
   prep in, on, (up) to, as far as GED
   prep/conj until W7
  und prep until GED
Middle English: advauncen vb to advance W7
  ancien adj ancient W7
  and- prep against W7
  ante- prep ante- W7
  ant(i)- pfx anti- W7
  antipodes n.pl antipodes, those with feet opposite ours AHD
  ava(u)ntage n advantage W7/MEV
  ende n end W7
  unto prep unto, lit. until-to W7
  vantgard n vanguard W7
English: advance vb to go forward AHD/W7
  advantage n benefit AHD/W7
  ancient adj of yore, exceeding old AHD/W7
  ante- pfx before AHD/W7
  ante n initial bet/stake AHD
  anterior adj forward AHD/W7
  anti- pfx against, contra AHD/W7
  antic adj absurd, farcical AHD/W7
  antidote n remedy to effects of poison AHD/W7
  antinomian adj/n (re:) adherent of antinomianism AHD
  antinomianism n belief that Gospel frees Christians from law AHD
  antinomy n contradiction between equally valid principles/inferences AHD/W7
  antipasto n hors d'oeuvre AHD/W7
  antiphon n psalm/verse sung antiphonally AHD/W7
  antipodes n.pl direct/diametrical opposites AHD
  antique adj ancient, very old AHD/W7
  antithesis n rhetorical contrast of ideas AHD/W7
  antitype n one foreshadowed by/identified with earlier type/symbol AHD/W7
  antonym n word having opposite meaning W7
  enantiomer n molecule not superimposable on mirror image (chemistry) AHD
  enantiomorph n mirror image compound (chemistry) AHD/W7
  -end sfx cape GED
  end n result; terminus, finality AHD/W7
  end vb to terminate AHD/W7
  Haysend prop.n Buckland village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Lands-end prop.n Land's End GED
  until prep/conj to, before, up to W7
  unto prep to, until IEW
  vanguard n leader, forefront AHD/W7
  Vedanta prop.n orthodox philosophy based on Upanishads (Hinduism) LRC
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: and(a) prep to, in, on GED/ASD
  enda/ein/eind(e) n.str.masc/neut end GED/ASD
  und prep until GED
Frisian: eyn(e) n end ASD
Dutch: einde n.neut end ASD
Old Saxon: and- pfx to, anti-, opposite; from GED
  and prep up to GED
  ant- pfx to, anti-, opposite; from GED
  ant prep up to GED
  endi adv earlier GED
  endi n.str.masc/neut end GED
  endi-los adj endless GED
  und conj until GED/ASD
  unt prep until GED/ASD
Old High German: ant-/ent-/int- pfx to, anti-, opposite; from GED
  ant prep on, into; before, against ASD
  anti n.str.masc/neut end GED
  endi n.str.neut forehead GED
  enti adv earlier GED/IEW
  enti n.str.masc/neut end GED
  int-fliohan vb to escape GED
  und prep until GED
  unt conj unto, until W7
  unt-az prep until GED
  unz(i) prep until GED/ASD
Middle High German: ende n.masc/neut end ASD
  ende-los adj endless GED
German: Ende n.neut end ASD
  Ost-ende prop.n Ostend GED
Langobardic: Ant-aib n border district GED
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: and prep against ASD
  en conj but, and; than LRC
  enn adv still; also; yet; further; again; moreover; even LRC
Old Icelandic: and- pfx to, anti-, opposite; from GED
  enda-lauss adj endless GED
  endi(r) n.str.masc/neut end GED
  endr adv again, earlier GED/IEW
  enn adv again, earlier GED/IEW
  enni n.str.neut forehead GED
  unz prep until GED
Icelandic: endi(r) n.masc end ASD
Danish: end conj than TLL
  ende n.masc/fem end ASD
Swedish: än conj than TLL
  ände n.masc end ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: and prep along, through, over; up to, towards GED
  andeis n.masc end GED
  andiz-uh conj either/or GED/IEW
  andniman vb.str.IV to take, receive LRC
  *Gutisk-andeis(-andi) prop.n Gothic peninsula GED
  und prep for, until, up to GED
  unte conj until ASD
  *unþa-þliuhan vb to escape GED
Italic  
Oscan: ant prep up to GED
Latin: abante adv before W7
  ante adv/prep/pfx before LRC
  anterior adj taking place before W7
  antiae n forelock, hair hanging to forehead GED
  anticus adj before GED/IEW
  antiquus, antiqua, antiquum adj old, antique, preceding GED
Vulgar Latin: abantio, abantiare vb to go forward W7
  anteanus adj ancient W7
Late Latin: antithesis n.fem contrary, antithesis W7
Medieval Latin: anti- pfx contrary, anti- W7
  antitypus n antitype AHD
Portuguese: antes adv before TLL
Spanish: antes adv before TLL
  delante adv before TLL
Old French: anti- pfx anti-, contrary W7
  auncien adj ancient AHD
  avancier vb to advance W7
  avant prep/pfx fore- W7
  avant-garde n.fem vanguard W7
  avauntage n advantage AHD
Middle French: ancien adj ancient W7
  anti- pfx anti- W7
  antique adj antique, ancient, of the ancient world W7
  avant prep before W7
  avantage n.masc vantage, benefit, advantage W7
  avant-garde n.fem vanguard W7
French: antique adj antique AHD
  avant adv/prep before TLL
  devant adv/prep before, in front of TLL
Italian: antico adj ancient W7
  antipasto n.masc antipasto, side dish W7/CID
  davanti adv before TLL
Baltic  
Lithuanian: añt prep on, to, against GED
  anta prep up to GED
  antà prep on, to, against GED
  añtis n breast, bosom GED
  i prep at, for, in, to LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: ánta prep opposite GED
  ántê-n adv against GED
  antí, ant- adv/prep/pfx facing, opposite, anti- LRC
  antithesis n.fem opposition, antithesis W7
  antitupos adj representing, corresponding AHD
  enanti adv facing W7
  enantios adj opposite W7
Late Greek: antitupos n copy, antitype AHD
Anatolian  
Lycian: chñta- pfx first, leader GED
Hittite: hant- n forehead, front(age) LRC
  hanti adv in front; separate, especially GED
Armenian  
Armenian: and adv there GED
  und prep for, through, along; with, during, under GED
Indic  
Sanskrit: anta n.masc end W7/ASD
  antamás adj.sup the last one GED
  ántas n end, limit GED
  ánti prep near, before GED
  ántyas vb to be at the end GED
  Vedanta prop.n end of the Veda W7
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: ante n brow LRC
Tocharian A: antus adv then GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
conj=conjunction
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pfx=prefix
pl=plural (number)
prep=preposition
prop=proper
sfx=suffix
str=strong (inflection)
sup=superlative
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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