The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ar(u)-   'to ear, plow'

Semantic Field: to Plow; Plow

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: airim vb to ear LRC
English  
Old English: ærian, ærede, æred vb.wk.I to ear LRC
  erian/erig(e)an, erede, ered vb.wk.I to ear ASD
Middle English: ærien vb to ear OED
  arable adj arable AHD
English: arable adj plowable, tillable AHD/W7
  ear vb to plow, till (the ground) OED
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: era vb to ear OED
Old Dutch: erien vb to ear OED
Old High German: erran/erren vb to ear OED
Middle High German: er(e)n vb to ear OED
Early New High German: aren vb to ear OED
German: ären/eren vb to ear ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: erja vb to ear OED
Icelandic: erja vb to ear ASD
Swedish: ärja vb to ear ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: arjan vb to ear LRC
Italic  
Latin: arabilis adj arable W7
  aro, arare vb to ear W7
Old French: arable adj arable AHD
Middle French: arable adj arable W7
French: arable adj arable CDC
Baltic  
Lithuanian: árti vb to ear LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: orati vb to ear LRC
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: aróô vb to ear LRC
Greek: aroûn vb to ear CDC
Armenian  
Armenian: araur n plow LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
adj=adjective
n=noun
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etyma:    previous   |   next