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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. au-, u- : ue-, uo-   'other; that (one)'

Semantic Fields: Like, Similar; to Separate


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: eac adv/conj eke, and, even, moreover LRC
Middle English: ec/eek/ek(e) adv/conj eke, and CDC
English: auto- pfx self, by itself TLL
  auto n car, automobile LRC
  automobile n 4-wheel automotive passenger vehicle W7
  automotive adj self-propelled W7
  eke adv also AHD/W7
  ossia conj or else AHD
Old Frisian: ak/oke conj eke, and GED/ASD
Frisian: (e)ak conj eke, and ASD
Dutch: ook conj eke, and CDC
Old Saxon: ok conj eke, and GED
Low German: ak/ok/auk conj eke, and CDC
Old High German: ou(c)h conj eke, and CDC
Middle High German: ouch conj eke, and CDC
German: auch conj eke, and CDC
  Auto n.neut auto LRC
Old Norse: auk/ok conj eke, and ASD
Old Icelandic: auk/ok conj eke, and GED
Icelandic: og conj and ASD
Danish: og conj eke, and CDC
Swedish: och/ock conj eke, and CDC/ASD
Gothic: áuk conj eke; but, for, because GED
  -u int.sfx/pcl [clause-initial enclitic] GED
Oscan: aut(i) conj but, again GED
Umbrian: ote/ute conj but; or GED
Latin: au adv away GED
  aut conj or GED
  autem conj but, again GED
  sive conj or if, whether...or LRC
  -ve conj.sfx or LRC
  vel conj either/or LRC
Portuguese: ou conj either, or TLL
Spanish: o conj either, or TLL
French: auto n auto TLL
  ou conj either, or TLL
Italian: o conj either, or TLL
  ossia conj or else, that is AHD
Old Church Slavonic: ovu' dem.pron this one here, that one there GED
Ionic: aûtis adv again GED
Greek: au pcl again LRC
   adv again, further GED
  aûge adv again GED
  aûthis adv/conj again; but GED
  aûte adv/conj then, again; but GED
  aûtin adv again GED
  aútis adv again LRC
  aûtis adv/conj again; but GED
  autós pron he, oneself LRC
  eautós refl.pron himself LRC
  eautoû refl.pron oneself LRC
  êúte adv just as GED
  oûtos dem.pron this LRC
  oútô/oútôs adv thus LRC
  pánu adv very much GED
  seautoû refl.pron yourself LRC
  tosoûtos/toioûtos adj/pron such LRC
Old Persian: ava- dem.pfx that, yonder GED
Avestan: ava- dem.pfx that, yonder GED
  uta conj eke, and GED
Sanskrit: ava- dem.pfx that, yonder GED
  u conj and, also; but GED
  utá conj and, but, also GED
  u conj and, also GED
Tocharian A: oki conj as, and GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
int=interrogative (mood)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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