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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 9. au(e)-, aued-, auer-   'to wet, flow, sprinkle; water, river, etc.'

Semantic Fields: to Flow; Water; Brook, Stream, River


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: u(i)sce n water W7
Scots Gaelic: uisge n water W7
Old English: otor/ot(e)r n.masc otter W7/ASD
  urig-feðera adj lit. dewey-feathered LRC
  wæsce n.fem washing place ASD
  wæt adj wet W7
  wætan vb.wk to wet, moisten W7/ASD
  wæter n.neut water LRC
  wascan/wæscan vb to wash W7/ASD
  wase n.fem ooze, slime; wash: marsh ASD
  waðum n.masc wave, sea LRC
  winter n.masc winter, (cold half of) year LRC
  winter-cearig adj sorrowful, lit. winter-caring LRC
  Winter-fylleþ prop.n October, lit. winter-fills (month) ASD
   n.str.fem wave LRC
Middle English: aboundant adj abundant AHD
  abounden vb to abound W7
  diuretic adj diuretic W7
  oter n otter W7
  redounden vb to redound W7
  surrounden vb to overflow W7
  urine n urine W7
  washen vb to wash W7
  wat/we(e)t adj wet CDC
  water/watre/wæter/weter n water CDC
  weten vb to wet W7
  winter/wynter n winter, (cold half of) year CDC
  Ydra prop.n Hydra W7
English: abound vb.intrans to be present in great quantity/large numbers AHD/W7
  abundant adj plentiful, abounding with AHD
  anhydrous adj free from water, esp. water of crystallization AHD/W7
  Bywater prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  clepsydra n water clock AHD/W7
  diuretic adj tending to increase flow of urine AHD/W7
  Entwash prop.n Rohan river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  enuresis n incontinence/involuntary discharge of urine AHD/W7
  hydathode n plant epidermal structure for water exudation AHD/W7
  hydatid n kind of larval tapeworm AHD/W7
  Hydra prop.n many-headed water-serpent slain by Hercules AHD/W7
  hydrant n faucet, fireplug, water pipe with valve AHD/W7
  hydraulic adj re: water/liquid AHD/W7
  hydrilla n (type of) submersed Old World plant AHD
  hydr(o)- pfx water, liquid W7
  hydrophobia n morbid fear of water W7
  hydrous adj re: water AHD
  Hydrus prop.n Water Snake (constellation) AHD
  inundate vb.trans to overflow, cover with flood AHD/W7
  kirschwasser n colorless cherry brandy AHD
  Loudwater prop.n a.k.a. Bruinen River in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Midgewater prop.n marshes in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  natriuresis n excretion of excessive sodium in urine AHD
  nutria n coypu: South American aquatic rodent AHD/W7
  otter n aquatic fish-eating mammal related to minks/weasels AHD/W7
  redound vb.intrans to overflow, become swollen AHD/W7
  redundant adj superfluous, exceeding what is necessary/normal AHD/W7
  surround vb.trans to encompass, enclose on all sides AHD/W7
  undine n water nymph AHD/W7
  undulate adj having wavy surface/margin/markings AHD/W7
  undulate vb to fluctuate, form/move in waves AHD/W7
  ureter n duct carrying urine from kidney to bladder/cloaca AHD/W7
  urethra n canal carrying urine from bladder AHD/W7
  uretic adj urinary, re: urine AHD
  -uria n.sfx presence of (specified substance) in urine AHD/W7
  urine n chief fluid excretory product of vertebrates AHD/W7
  usquebaugh n whiskey AHD
  utricle n small pouches/saccate parts of animal/plant body AHD/W7
  vodka n unaged, colorless neutral spirit distilled liquor AHD/W7
  wash n act of washing; bog, marsh, ground washed by sea/river W7
  wash vb to lave, cleanse via water/liquid AHD/W7
  water n liquid that falls from clouds as rain AHD/W7
  wet, wet vb to make wet, cover/soak with water AHD/W7
  wet adj moist; containing, consisting of, or covered/soaked with liquid (water) AHD/W7
  Wetwang prop.n marshes a.k.a. Nindalf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  whiskey n alcoholic liquor distilled from fermented grain AHD
  winter n wet cold season between autumn/spring AHD/W7
  Winterfilth prop.n Shire calendar's October in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Wintring prop.n Bree calendar's October in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: wet/weit adj wet, damp, moist ASD/CDC
  weter n.neut water CDC/ASD
  winter n.masc year, winter GED
Dutch: water n water CDC
  winter n year, winter CDC
Old Saxon: uðia n.fem wave ASD
  watar n.neut water CDC/ASD
  wintar n.masc year, winter GED
Old Low German: wascan vb to wash ASD
Middle Low German: water n water CDC
Low German: winter n year, winter CDC
Old High German: ottar/oter n otter W7/ASD
  unda n.fem wave ASD
  waskan/wascan vb to wash W7/ASD
  wazzar n.neut water W7/ASD
  wintar n.masc year, winter GED
Middle High German: wazzer n water CDC
  winter n year, winter CDC
German: Hydra n.fem Hydra LRC
  hydraulisch adj hydraulic LRC
  Hydro- n.pfx hydro- LRC
  Otter n.masc otter LRC
  Urin n.masc urine LRC
  Wasser n.neut water CDC
  Winter n.masc winter LRC
Runic: uintura years, winters GED
Old Norse: uðr n.fem wave LRC
  vatn n.neut water; lake, river, waterway LRC
  vatr adj wet W7
  vetr n.masc year, winter LRC
Old Icelandic: vet(t)r/vittr n.masc year, winter GED/CDC
Icelandic: otr n otter ASD
  unnr/uðr n.fem wave ASD
  vaska vb to wash ASD
  vatn n water CDC
  vatr adj wet, damp, moist CDC/ASD
  vetr n.masc winter ASD
  væta vb to wet ASD
Danish: vaad adj wet CDC
  vand n water CDC
  vinter n year, winter CDC
Swedish: vatten n water CDC
  vinter n year, winter CDC
  våt adj wet CDC
Gothic: wato n water LRC
  wintrus n.masc year, winter GED
Umbrian: utur n water LRC
Latin: abundo, abundare vb to overflow W7
  Aventinus, Aventini prop.n.masc Aventine (Hill, in Rome) LRC
  clepsydra n.fem clepsydra W7
  Hydra prop.n.fem Hydra W7
  inundo, inundare, inundatus vb to flood W7
  lutra n.fem otter W7
  redundo, redundare vb to overflow W7
  unda n.fem wave, water GED
  undo, undare vb to wave, surge, undulate LRC
  undula n.fem little wave W7
  undulatus adj wavy W7
  urina n.fem urine W7
  utriculus n.masc utricle W7
Late Latin: diureticus adj that provokes urination W7
  superrundo, superundare vb to overflow W7
  undula n.fem small wave W7
  urethra n.fem urethra W7
New Latin: enuresis n.fem involuntary discharge of urine W7
  Hydra n.fem (genus name) W7
  undina n.fem elemental being in theory of Paracelsus inhabiting water W7
  ureter n.masc duct from kidney to bladder W7
  -uria sfx urination W7
Spanish: nutria n.fem otter W7
Old French: abondant adj abundant AHD
Middle French: abonder vb to abound W7
  diurétique adj that provokes urination W7
  redonder vb to overflow W7
  suronder vb to overflow W7
  urine n.fem urine W7
Old Prussian: unds n.masc water GED
  wundan n.neut water GED
Lithuanian: vanduõ n.fem water GED
Latvian: udens n.masc water LRC
Old Church Slavonic: voda n.fem water LRC
Russian: voda n water W7
Albanian: ujë n water LRC
Homeric Greek: údros n.masc water-snake AHD/LS
Greek: anydros adj dry W7
  diourein vb to urinate W7
  diouretikos adj that provokes urination W7
  enourein vb to urinate in, wet the bed W7
  thêsaurós n.masc treasure LRC
  klepsydra n.fem clepsydra W7
  ourein vb to urinate W7
  ourethra n.fem urethra W7
  oureter n.masc ureter W7
  -ouria afx of urination W7
  ouron n.neut urine W7
  udat-/udr- pfx water CDC
  hydatis, hydatid- n.fem watery cyst W7
  údra prop.n.fem Hydra LRC
  údôr n.neut water LRC
Hittite: watar, wedenas n.neut water LRC
Armenian: get n water, river LRC
Avestan: vaidi n watercourse LRC
Sanskrit: udan n water CDC
  udnás n water LRC
  unátti vb to flow, wet GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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