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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 10. au(e)-, aue(i)-, ue-   'to vent, blow'

Semantic Field: to Blow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Breton: guent n wind GED
Welsh: gwynt n wind GED
Old English: wawan vb.wk to blow GED
  weder n.neut weather; wind, storm W7
  wind n.str.masc wind GED
  windwian vb.wk to fan, winnow GED
Middle English: ventail n ventail W7
  venten vb to vent W7
  weder n weather W7
  wind/wynd n wind CDC
  winewen vb to winnow W7
English: vent vb.trans to provide outlet/passage AHD/W7
  ventail n lower movable front of medieval helmet AHD/W7
  ventilate vb.trans to expose, discuss/examine/investigate freely/openly AHD/W7
  weather n state of atmosphere (w.r.t. heat/cold, calm/storm, wetness/dryness) AHD/W7
  Weathertop prop.n windy hill in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wind n air in natural motion CDC
  Windfola prop.n Eowyn's horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Windlord prop.n eagle a.k.a. Gwaihir in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  winnow vb to sift/remove/separate via air current IEW
Old Frisian: waia vb.wk to blow GED
  weder n.neut weather, condition ASD
  wind n.str.masc wind GED
Middle Dutch: waien vb.wk to blow GED
Dutch: weer n weather TLL
  wind n wind CDC
Old Saxon: wedar n.neut storm, weather ASD
  wind n.str.masc wind GED
Middle Low German: weien vb.wk to blow GED
Low German: wind n wind CDC
Old High German: wadal n.masc winnowing fan/basket GED
  waen vb.wk to blow GED
  wajan vb to blow, breathe ASD
  wanna n.fem fan GED
  wedil n.masc winnowing fan/basket GED
  wetar n.neut weather, condition W7/ASD
  wint n.str.masc wind GED
  winta n.str.fem winnowing shovel GED
  winton vb.wk to winnow GED
  wint-scuvala n.str.fem winnowing shovel GED
German: wehen vb to blow CDC
  Wetter n.neut weather LRC
  Wind n.masc wind CDC
Old Icelandic: vindr n.str.masc wind GED
Icelandic: veðr n.neut weather, condition ASD
  vindr n.masc wind ASD
Danish: vejr n weather TLL
  vind n wind CDC
Old Swedish: via vb.wk to blow GED
Swedish: vind n wind CDC
  väder n weather TLL
Gothic: *dis-winþjan vb.wk.I to crush GED
  *waian vb.str.VII to blow GED
  winds/winþs n.masc wind GED/CDC
Crimean Gothic: *wintch/vvintch n.str.masc wind GED/CGo
Latin: vannus n.fem winnowing fan/basket GED
  ventilabrum n.neut winnowing shovel GED
  ventilatus vb.ptc vented W7
  ventilo, ventilare vb to vent, fan, winnow GED
  ventulus n.masc.dim light wind W7
  ventus n.masc wind GED
Middle French: esventer vb to expose to air W7
  vent n.masc wind W7
  ventaille n.fem wind W7
French: vent n.masc wind W7
Old Prussian: wetro n wind GED
Lithuanian: vejas n wind GED
  vetykle n winnowing shovel GED
  vetyti vb to winnow GED
  vetra n storm GED
Latvian: vejs n wind GED
Old Slavic: vetru n wind W7
Old Church Slavonic: vetru' n storm GED
  vejati vb to blow GED
Russian: vieiate vb to blow CDC
  victeru n wind CDC
Greek: áêma n.neut wind, gale, blast GED/IEW
  aínô vb to winnow GED
  atmís n.fem steam, vapor LRC
  autmê n breath GED/IEW
  á(F)êsi vb to blow GED
Hittite: huuai- vb to run, flee GED
  huuant- n wind GED
Avestan: vaiti vb to blow GED
  vato n wind GED
  vayus n wind GED
Sanskrit: vatas n wind GED
  vati vb to blow GED
  vant- vb.pres.ptc blowing GED
  vayus n wind GED
Tocharian B: yente n wind GED
Tocharian A: wänt n wind GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
VII=class 7
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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