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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. b(e)u-, bh(e)u-   'to boil, swell, puff up'

Semantic Field: to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bolach vb to boil GED
Irish: bost n boast CDC
  púca n puck, imp, sprite LRC
Gaelic: bost n boast CDC
Cornish: bost n boast CDC
Welsh: bost n boast CDC
  pwca n puck, goblin ASD
Old English: beost/byst(ing) n.masc beasting(s) W7/ASD
  bile/byl(e) n.masc boil, bump ASD/GED
  buc n.masc jug, bucket, pitcher; belly, stomach IEW/ASD
  budda n dung-beetle IEW
  ge-pos n.neut pose ASD
  pocc n.masc pock W7/ASD
  pocca n.masc bag, pocket W7/ASD
  pos n pose IEW
  puca/pucel n.masc puck, goblin W7/ASD
  pudd n.masc ditch, furrow, puddle W7/ASD
  pyffan vb to puff W7
Middle English: be(e)stynge/bestninge n beasting(s) W7/CDC
  big(ge)/byg(ge) adj big, strong, lusty IEW/MEV/CDC
  biging n dwelling MEV
  bile n boil W7
  bill(e) n bill W7/CDC
  billette n billet CDC
  bocle n buckle W7
  boilen/boylen vb to boil W7/CDC
  boost(e)/bost(e) n boast; pride, arrogance W7/MEV/CDC
  boule/bowle n bowl W7/CDC
  bucket n bucket W7
  budde n bud; beetle IEW
  budden vb to bud IEW
  bugge n bug, beetle IEW
  bullace bolas CDC
  bulle n bull W7
  bullion n bullion W7
  byle n boil CDC
  bylet n billet W7
  parboilen vb to boil thoroughly W7
  pochen vb to poach W7
  podel n puddle IEW
  poke n poke W7
  poket n pocket W7
  pokke n pock W7
  pouche n pouch W7
  pouten vb to pout W7
  puffen vb to puff W7
  puke n puck W7
  trebochet n trebuchet W7
English: beastings/biestings colostrum (esp. of cow) IEW/W7
  big adj thick, large, of great size/force IEW
  bill n written document AHD/W7
  billet n note, brief letter AHD/W7
  billet-doux n love letter AHD/W7
  boast n brag, act of boasting AHD/W7
  bocaccio n large rockfish AHD/W7
  boil n localized swelling due to skin gland infection AHD/W7
  boil vb to generate vapor bubbles when heated AHD/W7
  bola n stone/iron balls bound to cords (used as weapon) AHD/W7
  boucle n uneven 3-ply yarn with loops at intervals AHD/W7
  bouillabaisse n highly seasoned fish stew AHD/W7
  bouillon n clear seasoned soup made of lean meat AHD/W7
  boule n pear-shaped mass of synthetic sapphire AHD/W7
  bouleversement n reversal AHD
  bowl n ball used in bowling AHD/W7
  bubo n inflammatory swelling of lymph gland AHD/W7
  buccal adj relating to the oral cavity AHD/W7
  buckboard n sprung-seated four-wheeled vehicle AHD/W7
  bucket n round vessel for solids/liquids IEW/W7
  buckle n catch, fastener AHD/W7
  Bucklebury prop.n hobbit town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  bud n undeveloped plant shoot IEW/W7
  bud vb to burgeon, come out, commence growth IEW/W7
  budge vb to shift, move AHD/W7
  bug n insect IEW
  bull n solemn papal letter sealed by bulla AHD/W7
  bulla n round lead seal attached to papal bull AHD/W7
  bullate adj re: puckered/blistered appearance AHD
  bullet n small round mass AHD/W7
  bulletin n brief authoritative public notice AHD/W7
  bullion n gold/silver considered as metal AHD/W7
  bully n canned/pickled beef AHD
  debouch vb to march out (from defile) onto open ground AHD/W7
  disembogue vb to flow as if from channel AHD/W7
  ebullience n exuberance, lively/enthusiastic expression AHD/W7
  embouchure n lip position on wind instrument AHD/W7
  garboil n turmoil, confusion AHD/W7
  parboil vb.trans to boil briefly as a preliminary AHD/W7
  poach vb.trans to cook in liquid just below boiling point AHD/W7
  pock n pustule in eruptive disease (e.g. smallpox) AHD/W7
  pocket n purse, small bag in clothing AHD/W7
  poke n sack, bag AHD/W7
  pose n catarrh, head-cold IEW/OED
  pouch n small drawstring bag AHD/W7
  pout vb to show displeasure via sullen expression AHD/W7
  puck n demon, evil spirit W7
  pucker vb to gather into small folds/wrinkles AHD
  puckish adj impish, whimsical W7
  puddle n small pool of dirty/muddy water IEW/W7
  puff vb to blow in short gust AHD/W7
  Púkel-men Wose-like statues in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  trebuchet n medieval military engine for heaving missiles AHD/W7
Scots English: böl n bowl CDC
Old Frisian: bel/beil n.fem boil, bump GED/ASD
  bulen vb to boil, swell GED
Middle Dutch: bule n boil CDC
  buylen vb to boil, swell GED
  pocke n pock W7
Dutch: buik n belly TLL
  buil n.fem boil ASD
Middle Low German: büle n.fem boil, bump GED
Low German: bule/büle n boil CDC
  pudel n puddle W7
Old High German: bulia n.fem boil, bump GED
  pulla n.fem boil, bump GED
Middle High German: biule n.fem boil, bump GED
German: Bauch n.masc belly, stomach TLL
  Beule n.fem boil ASD
  beulen vb to bulge LRC
  Puffen n.neut puffing sound LRC
  puffen vb to puff, chuff LRC
Old Norse: beyla n.fem boil ASD
  puki n puck, devil W7
Old Icelandic: Beyla prop.n Freyja's servant GED
  bola n.fem blain, shield boss GED
Icelandic: beyla n boil CDC
  bola n blain, blister CDC
  púki n puck, imp, devil ASD
Norwegian: bolen vb.past.ptc swollen GED
  bola n boil, bump GED
Danish: bug n belly TLL
  bu(g)le n.masc/fem boil ASD/CDC
  byld n blain, blister CDC
  pokker n puck, deuce, devil ASD
Old Swedish: bolin vb.past.ptc swollen GED
Swedish: buk n belly TLL
  bula n.fem boil ASD
  böld n blain, blister CDC
Gothic: *uf-bauljan vb.wk.I to inflate GED
Latin: bucca n.fem cheek, mouth W7
  buccula n.fem.dim little cheek/mouth W7
  bulla n.fem bubble, amulet W7
  bullio, bullire vb to boil, bubble W7
  bullo, bullare vb to boil, bubble CDC
Vulgar Latin: *bilia n log AHD
  bullico, bullicare vb to boil W7
Late Latin: perbullio, perbullire vb to boil W7
Middle Latin: billeta n.dim billet CDC
Medieval Latin: billa n.fem bill W7
  bubo, bubonis n.masc pustule W7
  bulla n bulla, document seal AHD
New Latin: bulla n.fem bulla, bubble W7
Portuguese: bola n bowl CDC
  bulir vb to boil, move, stir, be active CDC
Spanish: boca n.fem mouth W7
  bocacha n.fem mouth W7
  bola n.fem ball, bowl W7
  bullir vb to boil CDC
  desembocar vb to vomit W7
  embocar vb to put into the mouth W7
Old French: billette n billet, official register AHD
  boillir vb to boil W7
  boillon n.masc broth W7
  boule n bowl CDC
  bulle n document AHD
  pochier vb to pocket, put into a bag W7
Old North French: pokete n.fem.dim small bag W7
Anglo-French: bille n bill CDC
  billette n billet CDC
  buket n bucket, pitcher W7
  bullion n.masc mint W7
Middle French: billette n.fem.dim log W7
  bocle n.fem buckle, shield boss W7
  bouger vb to move, budge W7
  boule n.fem ball W7
  boulet n.masc missile W7
  boulette n.fem.dim small ball W7
  bulle n.fem document W7
  garbouil n.masc garboil W7
  parboillir vb to parboil W7
  pocher vb to poach; put into a bag W7
  trébuchet n.masc trebuchet W7
French: billet(te) n billet CDC
  bouche n.fem mouth W7
  boucle n.fem curl, buckle W7
  bouclé adj curly W7
  boucler vb to curl, fasten (e.g. belt buckle) W7
  bouillabaisse n bouillabaisse W7
  bouillir vb to boil CDC
  bouillon n.masc broth, bouillon W7
  boule n.fem ball, bowl W7
  bouleversement n bouleversement W7
  bulletin n.masc report, bulletin W7
  déboucher vb to unplug W7
  embouchure n.fem embouchure W7
Old Occitan: bola n bowl CDC
Proven├žal: bulhir/buillir vb to boil CDC
Italian: boccaccia n.fem large ugly mouth CDC
  bolla/bulla n bowl CDC
  bollire vb to boil CDC
  bulla n.fem papal edict W7
  bullettino n.masc.dim little bulletin W7
Lithuanian: bulìs n buttock GED
Slovenian: búliti vb to swell GED
Greek: boubon n.masc groin W7
Armenian: boil n herd, multitude GED
Sanskrit: buris n buttock GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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