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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: bhad-   'good, better'

Semantic Field: Good


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: betan vb to boot CDC
  bet(e)ra adj.comp better W7/CDC
  bet(e)re adv.comp better CDC
  bet(e)st adj.sup best W7/CDC
  bet(o)st adv.sup best CDC
  bot n.fem boot; help, offering W7/ASD
Middle English: best adv.sup best CDC
  beste adj.sup best CDC
  bet(t)er/betre adv.comp better CDC
  bettre/bet(t)ere adj.comp better W7/CDC
  boote/bot(e) n boot, profit CDC
  bot(e)/boot n boot, cure, salvation MEV/W7
  boten/beten vb to boot CDC
English: batten vb to grow fat AHD/W7
  best adj/adv.sup excelling all others AHD/W7
  better adj/adv.comp more than half AHD/W7
  boot n redress, remedy, compensation; deliverance ASD/W7
  boot vb to help, avail, profit W7
Old Frisian: beste adj.sup best CDC
  bet(e)re adj.comp better CDC
  bote n boot, profit, advantage; repair, reparation CDC
  bote n.fem boot, assistance ASD
Dutch: baat n boot, gain, profit, advantage CDC
  baten vb to boot CDC
  best adj.sup best CDC
  beter adj.comp better CDC
  boete n.fem boot, assistance ASD
Old Saxon: betara/betera adj.comp better CDC
  betsto adj.sup best CDC
  bota n.fem boot, assistance ASD
Middle Low German: bate n gain, profit, advantage CDC
  baten vb to boot, help CDC
Low German: bate n gain, profit, advantage CDC
  baten vb to boot, help CDC
  bote n boot, profit, advantage; repair, reparation CDC
Old High German: bezziro adj.comp better CDC
  bezzisto adj.sup best CDC
  boza n.fem boot, assistance ASD
  buoza n boot, profit, advantage; repair, reparation CDC
Middle High German: bezzer adj.comp better CDC
  bezzist/best adj.sup best CDC
  buoz(e) n boot, assistance ASD
German: besser adj/adv.comp better LRC
  best adj.sup best CDC
  Busse n.fem boot, profit, advantage; repair, reparation CDC
  Busze n.fem boot, assistance ASD
Old Norse: batna vb to improve W7
  betr adv.comp better, more LRC
  betri adj.comp better LRC
  beztr adj.sup best LRC
  bót n.fem boot, atonement LRC
Icelandic: bati n advantage, improvement CDC
  betri adj.comp better CDC
  beztr/baztr adj.sup best CDC
  bot n.fem boot, assistance ASD
Danish: bedre adj.comp better CDC
  bedst adj.sup best CDC
  bod n boot, assistance ASD
Swedish: bot n.masc boot, assistance ASD
  bäst adj.sup best CDC
  bättre adj.comp better CDC
Gothic: *batan vb to boot, be useful CDC
  batists adj.sup best ASD
  batiza adj.comp better ASD
  bota/bota n.str.fem boot, advantage ASD
  ga-batnan vb to boot, be bettered CDC
Sanskrit: bhadra adj fortunate W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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