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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhagó-s   'beech (tree)'

Semantic Fields: Beech; Tree, Oak


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bece/bæce/beoce n.wk.fem beech GED/ASD
  boc/bec n.str.fem book(s), record(s) GED
  boc n.wk.fem beech GED
  bocere n.str.masc writer GED
  boc-hus n.neut library, lit. book-house MEV
  boc-stæf n.str.neut letter (of alphabet) GED
Middle English: beche n beech W7
  boc/bok(e)/book(e) n book MEV/W7
  boc-hous n library, lit. book-house MEV
English: beech n grey/white smooth-barked hardwood tree AHD/W7
  Beechbone prop.n Ent name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  book n written work with pages bound together AHD/W7
  buckwheat n Asian plant with small edible triangular seeds AHD/W7
Scots English: buik/beuk/buke n book CDC
Old Frisian: bok n.str.fem book GED
Frisian: boek n.neut book ASD
  bok n.fem book ASD
Old Dutch: boeke n beech CDC
Middle Dutch: boeck n book CDC
Dutch: beuk(e) n.fem beech ASD
  boec n beech W7
  boek n.neut book CDC/ASD
  boekweit n buckwheat W7
Flemish: boek n beech CDC
Old Saxon: bok n.str.fem/neut book, writing-tablet GED
  bok(ia) n.wk.fem beech GED
  bok-stabo n.wk.masc letter (of alphabet) GED
  bok-staf n.str.masc letter (of alphabet) GED
Old Low German: bok n book CDC
  boke/bóke n beech CDC
Low German: baike n beech CDC
  book n book CDC
Old High German: bok n beech CDC
  buocha n.wk.fem beech GED
  buoh/boh n.str.neut book GED/ASD
  buohha n beech tree W7
  buohhari n.str.masc scribe GED
  buoh-stap n.str.masc letter (of alphabet) GED
Middle High German: buoch n.neut book CDC/ASD
  buoche n beech CDC
  buoch-stabe n.wk.masc letter (of alphabet) GED
  Buohhunna prop.n Beech Wood GED
German: Buch n.neut book CDC
  Buche n.fem beech ASD
  Buchstabe n.masc letter (of alphabet) LRC
Old Norse: bók n.str.fem book LRC
Old Icelandic: bok, bøkr n.str.fem book(s) GED
  bok n.str.fem beech GED
  bok-stafr n.str.masc letter (of alphabet) GED
Icelandic: baukr n box GED
  beyki n beech forest GED
  bok n.fem book CDC
Danish: bog n book CDC
  bøg n beech CDC/TLL
Swedish: bok n beech CDC
  bok n.fem book CDC/ASD
Gothic: bok n.neut letter (of alphabet) CDC
  *boka n beech CDC
  bok(a) n.fem/ (letters comprising) book, writing, document CDC
  boka n.fem book, letter (of alphabet) GED
  bokareis n.masc scribe, writer GED
Latin: fagus n.fem beech(-tree) GED
Middle Latin: Boconia prop.n Beech Wood GED
Lithuanian: bùkas/bukas n beech GED
Polish: buk n beech CDC
  buk n beech GED
Czech: buk n beech CDC
Serbian: bukva n beech CDC
Old Church Slavonic: bukva n.fem book ASD
  bukvamu' letters GED
  bukvari n abecedarium CDC
  bukui/bukuve n beech CDC
  bukui n letter CDC
  bukui (letters comprising) writing CDC
  buku'vi epistle, document GED
Bulgarian: buk n beech CDC
Russian: buz n alder GED
  buziná n.fem alder GED
  bukva n letter CDC
  buku n beech CDC
Albanian: bungë n oak GED
Doric: phagós n oak, acorn GED
Attic: phageîn vb to eat GED
  phêgós n.fem oak, acorn GED
Sanskrit: bháksati vb to eat GED
  bhájati vb to distribute GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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