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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhares-   'barley'

Semantic Field: Barley


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Cornish: barliz n barley CDC
Welsh: barlys n barley CDC
Old English: bærlic adj barley-like W7
  bere n.str.masc barley GED
  bereærn/bere(r)n/be(a)rn n.neut barn, lit. barley-place W7/ASD
Northumbrian: berern/bere-ern n barn, lit. barley-place CDC
Middle English: barly/barlich/berley n barley W7/CDC
  bern/barn n barn W7/CDC
English: barley n cereal grass AHD/W7
  Barliman prop.n Bree innkeeper in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  barn n farm building (for animals/harvested crops) AHD/W7
  farina n fine meal of vegetable matter AHD/W7
  farrago n mixture, confused collection AHD/W7
Scots English: barlick n barley CDC
Old Frisian: ber n barley GED
Old Icelandic: barr n.str.neut grain, barley RPN/GED
Icelandic: barlak n barley CDC
Norwegian: barr n.neut barley ASD
Swedish: barr n.neut barley ASD
Gothic: *barizeins adj prepared from barley flour GED
Oscan: far n spelt GED
Umbrian: far n spelt GED
  farsio adj re: grain GED
  fasiu adj re: grain GED
Latin: far, farris n.neut spelt, grain RPN/GED
  farina n.fem grain, flour, farina GED
  farrago n.fem mixture, mixed fodder W7
  farrea adj.fem re: grain GED
Portuguese: farinha n flour, farina TLL
Spanish: harina n flour, farina TLL
French: farine n flour, farina TLL
Italian: farina n flour, farina TLL
Old Church Slavonic: brasi'no n food GED
Russian: bórosno n.neut rye flour GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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