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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: bhat- : bhut-   'to bat, hit'

Semantic Field: to Hit, Strike, Beat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: bat(a) n bat CDC
Gaulish: anda-bata n gladiator W7
Old English: *bat/batt n bat CDC/W7
Middle English: batel(l)/batail(e)/bataill n battle, embattled host MEV
  batent n batten AHD
  bat(e)ren vb to batter CDC/AHD
  bat(te)/botte n bat W7/CDC
  batten vb to bat CDC
  batyldore/batyld(o)ure n battledore W7/CDC
English: bat n staff, club, cudgel CDC
  bat vb to hit, beat, strike W7
  batten n narrow strip of wood AHD
  batten vb to secure with battens AHD
  batter vb to bat repeatedly AHD
  battle n combat, encounter between armed forces ODE
  battledore n bat, racquet, beating instrument W7
Latin: battuo, battuere vb to bat, beat, knock RPN
Vulgar Latin: *battalia n battle AHD
Late Latin: batto, battere vb to bat, batter AHD
  battualia n battle, military/gladiatorial exercises ODE
Portuguese: bater vb to batter CDC
Spanish: batidor/batador n battledore CDC
  batir vb to batter CDC
Old French: bataille n battle, embattled host MEV
  bataunt n batten, clapper AHD
  batre vb to bat, batter AHD
  batte n bat, wand, rammer CDC
French: batte n bat, wand, rammer CDC
  battre vb to batter CDC
Old Proven├žal: batedor n.masc battledore W7
  batre vb to bat, batter W7
Italian: battere vb to batter CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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