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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhau- : bhu-   'to hit, beat'

Semantic Field: to Hit, Strike, Beat

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: beatan, beot, beoton, beaten vb.str.VII to beat, pound, strike LRC
  bietel/bit(e)l/byt(e)l/betel n.masc/neut beetle, hammer RPN/ASD/CDC
  bytla n.masc builder, hammerer ASD
  bytlian vb.wk to build, construct ASD
  *hol-bytla n.masc hole-builder LRC
Middle English: abutten adv partly W7
  batyldore n bat used in washing clothes W7
  beten vb to beat W7
  betylle/betel n beetle W7/CDC
  bitel/bittill/bytylle n beetle W7/CDC
  bitel-browed adj having overhanging brows W7
  boton n button W7
  butres n buttress W7
  butte n flatfish W7
  butten vb to butt AHD
  buttok n buttock W7
  halybutte n.sg.pl halibut W7
  rebuten vb to rebut W7
  turbot n turbot W7
English: abut vb to touch along border AHD/W7
  baste vb.trans to thrash, beat soundly AHD/W7
  beat, beat, beaten vb.str.freq to strike repeatedly AHD/W7
  beetle n mallet, heavy wooden ramming/battering tool AHD/W7
  bouton n bud-like swelling, button-shaped object AHD
  butt n blow/push with head/horns AHD
  butt vb to hit/push with head/horns AHD
  buttock n either rounded half of lower part of back AHD/W7
  button n small fastening knob/disk AHD/W7
  buttress n stabilizing wood/masonry structure AHD/W7
  clafouti(s) n French baked-fruit dessert AHD
  confute vb.trans to win over by conclusive argument AHD/W7
  footle vb to fool, trifle, loiter, waste time AHD/W7
  gentlehobbit n noble/gentle hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  halibut n marine food fish (largest flatfish) AHD/W7
  hobbit n halfling in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Holbytla prop.n a.k.a. hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  rebut vb to repel, beat back AHD/W7
  refute vb.trans to overthrow by argument AHD/W7
  sackbut n medieval trombone AHD/W7
  turbot n large brownish European flatfish AHD/W7
Scots English: bittle/bittill n beetle CDC
W-Germanic  
Middle Low German: but n flounder W7
Low German: betel/bötel n beetle CDC
Old High German: boz(z)an/pozan vb to beat RPN/ASD
Middle High German: bozel n beetle CDC
  bozen vb to beat CDC
German: boszen vb to beat ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Icelandic: bauta vb to beat RPN
  beysta vb to baste, thresh RPN
Icelandic: bauta vb to beat CDC
  bey(r)sta vb to baste, drub CDC
Danish: böste vb to baste CDC
Swedish: basa vb to baste, whip, strike CDC
  bösta vb to baste, drub CDC
Italic  
Latin: confuto, confutare vb to check, repress W7
  fustis n stick, staff, club RPN
  -futare vb to beat W7
  futuo, futuere, futui, fututum vb to have intercourse AHD
  refuto, refutare vb to refute W7
Old French: aboter vb to border on W7
  abuter vb to come to an end W7
  boterez n.masc projecting rock/architectural structure W7
  boton n.masc button W7
  bo(u)ter vb to butt, strike, expulse, push out W7
  but n.masc end, aim W7
  reboter vb to rebut W7
  saqueboute n.fem sackbut W7
  tourbot n.masc turbot W7
Middle French: boton n.masc button W7
  bouterez n.masc masonry structure W7
  saqueboute n.fem hooked lance W7
French: bouton n.masc bud, button, bouton LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
VII=class 7
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
prop=proper
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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