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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 2. bhe, bho   (emphatic particle)

Semantic Field: Word

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
W-Germanic  
Old Saxon: neba conj if not GED
Old High German: iba n.str.fem condition GED
  ibu conj if GED
  nibu conj if not GED
E-Germanic  
Gothic: ba conj.enc.pcl if, even though GED
  ibái conj lest, that not GED
  ibai int.pcl whether, possibly GED
  jabái conj if, even if, although GED
  niba/nibái conj unless, except, if not GED
Baltic  
Lithuanian: ba adv for, yes GED/IEW
   adv indeed GED
   prep before, without LRC
  bei conj and LRC
Latvian: ba adv indeed GED
Slavic  
Polish: ba adv indeed GED
Czech: ba adv indeed GED
Old Church Slavonic: bo adv then GED
  bo conj/prep for GED
Hellenic  
Greek: méspha adv until GED
  phê adv as GED
Armenian  
Armenian: ba(y) interj.pcl [emphatic] GED
Iranian  
Avestan: ba adv truly, indeed GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adv=adverb(ial)
conj=conjunction
enc=enclitic
fem=feminine (gender)
int=interrogative (mood)
interj=interjection
n=noun
pcl=particle
prep=preposition
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin

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