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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhei(u)-, bhi-   'to hit'

Semantic Field: to Hit, Strike, Beat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: bil n bill: beak, mouth CDC
Gaelic: bil n bill: beak, mouth CDC
Old English: ban/baan n.neut bone W7/ASD
  bile n.masc bill: beak CDC
  bil(l) n.neut bill: pick; sword, falchion IEW/ASD
Middle English: bil/bill(e) n bill: pick; sword CDC
  bil(l)/bil(l)e n bill: beak W7/CDC
  bon n bone W7
English: Beechbone prop.n Ent name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Bilbo prop.n hero in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  bill n bird's beak AHD/W7
  bill n pick, mattock, long staff with hook-shaped blade AHD/W7
  Bohemia prop.n (area in) Czechoslovakia AHD
  Bohemian prop.n native/inhabitant of Bohemia W7
  bohemian n artist, writer; wanderer, vagabond AHD/W7
  bone n hard part of skeleton of vertebrate HGE/W7
  twibill n double-bladed battle-ax, lit. two-bill AHD/CDC
Middle Dutch: bille n bill; sword CDC
Dutch: been n bone; leg TLL
  bijl n.fem bill; sword ASD
Old Saxon: bil n.neut bill; sword CDC/ASD
Old High German: bein n bone W7
  bi(h)al n.neut bill; sword ASD
  bill n.fem bill: pick; sword W7/CDC
Middle High German: bil(e) n.neut bill: pick (to sharpen millstones) CDC/ASD
German: Bei(he)l n.neut bill; sword ASD
  Bein n.neut bone; leg TLL
Old Norse: bein n bone W7
Danish: ben n leg TLL
Swedish: ben n bone TLL
  bill n bill, plowshare CDC
French: bohème n gypsy, musician, bohemian W7
Greek: phitros n.masc log W7
Sanskrit: bil vb to divide ASD
  bhid vb to split, cleave CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
HGE=Vladimir E. Orel: A Handbook of Germanic Etymology (2003)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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