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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhel-, Balto-Slavic also bhelu-   'glittering white'

Semantic Fields: to Shine, Glisten; White


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bæl n.neut flame, pyre GED/IEW
  pol n.masc pool IEW/ASD
  pyll n.masc pill IEW/ASD
Middle English: balled/balde/belde adj bald IEW/CDC
  pool n pool W7
English: bald adj bare, shorn, lacking hair/feathers IEW
  beluga n cetacean AHD/W7
  effulgent adj re: brilliance, radiant splendor AHD/W7
  foudroyant adj awesome, dazzling, thundering, overwhelming AHD/W7
  pill n.dial pool, (small tidal) creek IEW/OED
  pool n small deep body of water IEW
  refulgent adj resplendent, shining radiantly AHD
Old High German: pelihha n.str.fem bald coot GED/IEW
  pfuol n pool IEW
Middle High German: belche n.str.fem bald coot GED
German: Beluga n.masc beluga LRC
Old Norse: bál n.neut fire, flame LRC
Old Icelandic: bal n.neut fire, flame GED/IEW
  blesi prop.n.masc Blesi (nickname) GED
Danish: bældet adj bald IEW
Gothic: *bala- adj gray, shining GED/IEW
Latin: fulica n.fem bald coot GED/IEW
French: foudroyant adj foudroyant, lightning-like W7
Lithuanian: balà n.masc marsh GED/IEW
  bãlas/báltas adj white RPN
  bálti vb to be white, become pale GED/IEW
Latvian: balinat, balinu, balinaju vb to bleach LRC
  balti adv white LRC
  balts adj white LRC
Old Church Slavonic: belu' adj white GED/IEW
Russian: beluga/bieluga n beluga; sturgeon, white fish W7/CDC
  belyi/bieluii adj white W7/CDC
Albanian: ballë n forehead GED/IEW
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: phalêrós adj shining GED/IEW
  phal(i)ós adj shining GED/IEW
Greek: phainein vb to show W7
  phalós adj white, shining RPN
Sanskrit: bhalam n.neut forehead; splendor, radiance GED/IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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