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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhendh-   'to tie, bind'

Semantic Field: to Bind

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: bann n bond, hinge, law RPN
English  
Old English: bend/bænd n band: fetter W7/ASD
  bendan vb.wk to bind; bend, stretch RPN
  bindan, bond, bundon, bunden vb.str.III to bind, tie LRC
  bund n bundle RPN
  byndel n bundle W7
  gebind n.neut band, binding, fastening LRC
  wudubinde n woodbine W7
Middle English: band n band: bond W7
  bande n band: strip W7
  bend n bend W7
  benden vb to bend LRC
  binden vb to bind W7
  bond n bond W7
  bundel n bundle W7
  riban n ribbon W7
  wodebinde n woodbine W7
English: band n strip, belt, cord AHD/W7
  band n bond allowing some movement AHD/W7
  bandanna n large figured handkerchief AHD/W7
  bend, bent vb.wk to flex, curve, strain to tension W7
  bend n diagonal band AHD/W7
  bind, bound vb.str to secure by tying AHD/W7
  bindlestiff n tramp with bundled possessions AHD
  bond n fetter, thing that binds/restrains AHD/W7
  bund n embankment used to control water flow AHD/W7
  bund n political association AHD/W7
  bundle n items fastened together for handling convenience AHD/W7
  cummerbund n broad sash worn as waistband AHD/W7
  ribbon n narrow flat/tubular woven fabric for trimming/knitting AHD/W7
  woodbine n honeysuckle AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: band n band CDC
  bende n bend, bond CDC
  binda vb to bind, tie ASD
Frisian: bynnen vb to bind, tie ASD
Old Dutch: bende n bend, bond CDC
Dutch: band n band CDC
  bind n.neut joint, crossbeam CDC
  binden vb to bind, tie ASD
Old Saxon: band n band CDC
  bendi n bend, bond CDC
  bindan vb to bind, tie ASD
Old High German: bant n band W7
  binda/binta n bend, tie, fillet, cravat RPN
  bintan vb to bind RPN
Middle High German: bant n band CDC
  binde n bend, tie, fillet, cravat CDC
  binden/benden vb to bind, tie, fetter ASD
  bunt n band: cord; league, coalition W7
German: Band n.neut band CDC
  Binde n.fem band, tie, fillet, cravat CDC
  binden vb to bind, tie ASD
  Bund n.masc band: cord; league, coalition W7
  Bündel n.masc bundle LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: band n band: cord; coaltion W7
Old Icelandic: benda n band, tie RPN
  benda vb to bend RPN
  bendi n band: cord RPN
  binda vb to bind, tie, fasten RPN
Icelandic: band n band CDC
  benda vb to bend CDC
  binda vb to bind CDC
Danish: baand n band, tie CDC
  bind n.neut band, tie CDC
  binde vb to bind, tie ASD
  bænde vb to bend CDC
Swedish: band n band CDC
  binda vb to bind, tie ASD
  bända vb to bend CDC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: bandi n band: bond RPN
  bindan vb to bind RPN
  ga-binda/ga-bindi n band, tie ASD
Italic  
Middle Latin: benda/binda n bend CDC
Portuguese: banda n band: strip CDC
  bandanna n bandanna AHD
  venda n bend CDC
  vender vb to bind; hoodwink CDC
Spanish: banda n.fem band: strip CDC
  venda n bend CDC
  vender vb to bind; hoodwink CDC
Old French: bande n band: strip CDC
  bende n bend CDC
  bender vb to bend, bind, tie CDC
Middle French: bande n.fem band: strip; troop W7
  riban n.masc ribbon W7
  ruban n.masc ribbon W7
French: bande n band: strip CDC
  bander vb to bend, bind, tie CDC
Old Occitan: benda n bend CDC
  bendar vb to bind; hoodwink CDC
Italian: banda n band: strip CDC
  benda n bend CDC
  bendare vb to bind; hoodwink CDC
Baltic  
Lithuanian: beñdras n.masc friend, participant LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: peîsma n.neut rope, cable LRC
  phátnê n.fem manger LRC
Iranian  
Persian: band n band: bond W7
  kamarband n sash W7
Avestan: bandayaiti vb to bind LRC
Indic  
Sanskrit: baddhá-h adj bound, tied, fastened RPN
  badhnati vb to bind LRC
  bandhá-h n bond, knot, chain RPN
  bandhayati vb to cause to bind RPN
  bándhu-h n connection, relation RPN
  bandhura-h adj bent, curved RPN
  bandhnati vb to bind, tie, fasten RPN
Hindi: kamarband n sash W7
  band n embankement along river W7
  badhna vb to tie W7
  badhnu n dyeing cloth tied in knots W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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