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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. bher-   'to bore, cut, scrape, use sharp tool'

Semantic Fields: to Cut; Sharp; Tool


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: barra n bar, spike CDC
Gaelic: barra n bar, spike CDC
Breton: barren n bar, branch CDC
Cornish: bara n bar CDC
Welsh: bar n bar, rail CDC
Old English: bearg/bearh n.masc barrow W7/ASD
  bor n auger, gimlet RPN
  borian vb to bore, pierce RPN
Middle English: barow(e)/bar(r)ow/baru n barrow W7/CDC
  barr(e) n bar W7/CDC
  bor(i)en vb to bore W7/CDC
English: bar n barrier, straight solid wood/metal implement IEW
  barrow n male hog castrated prior to sexual maturity AHD/W7
  bore vb to pierce with rotary tool AHD/W7
  borer n rotary tool for boring LRC
  burin n stone-cutting tool with sharp beveled point AHD
  Dukhobor prop.n (member of) Russian Christian movement AHD
  foramen n fenestra: small opening/orifice/perforation AHD/W7
  perforate vb to make hole(s) in AHD/W7
  pharynx n alimentary canal between mouth and esophagus AHD/W7
Frisian: baerg n.masc barrow ASD
Dutch: barg n.masc barrow ASD
  berg n barrow CDC
  boor n borer, auger, gimlet CDC
  boren vb to bore CDC
Middle Low German: barc n barrow CDC
  bor n borer, auger, gimlet CDC
Old High German: bar(u)g/barc n.masc barrow W7/ASD
  boro n auger RPN
  boron vb to bore RPN
Middle High German: bar(re) n bar CDC
  born vb to bore CDC
German: Barre n bar, ingot CDC
  bohren vb to bore LRC
  Bohrer n.masc borer, auger, gimlet LRC
  Borg-schwein n.neut barrow ASD
Old Norse: barki n throat W7
  berja, barði/bariðr vb to beat, smite; (refl.) fight LRC
Old Icelandic: bora vb to bore (holes in) RPN
  borr n borer, auger, gimlet RPN
Icelandic: bora vb to bore CDC
  borr n borer, auger, gimlet CDC
  börgr n barrow CDC
Danish: barre n bar, ingot CDC
  bor n borer, auger, gimlet CDC
  bore vb to bore CDC
Swedish: borr n borer, auger, gimlet CDC
  borra vb to bore CDC
Latin: ferio, ferire vb to strike, cut, kill W7
  foramen, foraminis n.neut hole, opening W7
  foro, forare vb to bore, pierce RPN
  informis, informis, informe adj hideous, unshapely LRC
  perforo, perforare, perforatus vb to pierce, perforate W7
Late Latin: barra n bar CDC
New Latin: pharynx, pharyngis n.masc pharynx W7
Portuguese: barra n bar CDC
Spanish: barra n bar CDC
Old French: barre n bar W7
French: barre n bar CDC
Old Occitan: barra n bar CDC
Italian: barra n bar CDC
Old Church Slavonic: borjo, brati vb to fight RPN
Russian: baru n bar CDC
  bort' n hollowed-out tree RPN
Albanian: brimë n hole RPN
Homeric Greek: phárugx n.fem throat, gullet, pharynx LS
Greek: pharáô vb to plow RPN
  phármakon n.neut paint, color LRC
  pharóô vb to plow RPN
  pharynx n.masc/fem throat, pharynx W7
Classical Armenian: beran n mouth LRC
Armenian: brem vb to dig, drill (out) RPN
Sanskrit: bhára-h n war, battle, contest RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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