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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bheregh-, bherghos-   'high, noble; barrow, mountain'

Semantic Fields: High; Noble, Nobleman; Hill, Mountain


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: borg/brog/brugh n castle RPN
  brigh n barrow CDC
  bri/brig n.fem brae GED
Irish: bri n barrow CDC
Breton: bre n barrow CDC
Cornish: bre n brae LRC
Welsh: bera n heap GED
  bre n brae, barrow CDC
Gaulish: Berg- prop.n Berg- GED
  Brig-antes prop.n Brigantes GED
  Brig-antia prop.n Bregenz GED
Old English: beorg/beorh n.masc barrow LRC
  beorgan vb to cover, protect CDC
  biorg/biorh n.masc barrow ASD
  bre(o)go/bregu/brega n.masc lord, prince, king, ruler ASD
  burg/bur(u)h n borough, fortified place/town/city RPN/CDC
  mund-beorh n.masc sheltering-hill ASD
Middle English: berfreid/belfray n belfry CDC
  berfrey/belfry n belfry W7
  bergh/berw/ber(u)z/beoruh n barrow W7/CDC
  borwe/borowe/boruz/buruh n borough CDC
  bourg/bor(u)gh n bourg W7/MEV
  bra n brae W7
  burgeis n burgess, bourgeois W7
  burgh n borough W7
  comforten vb to comfort W7
  deforcen vb to deforce W7
  enforcen vb to enforce W7
  fabour n faubourg W7
  force n force W7
  fortalice n fortalice W7
  forte n fort W7
  forteresse n fortress W7
  fortifien vb to fortify W7
  fortitude n fortitude W7
English: barrow n hill, mountain; mound, tumulus AHD/W7
  Barrow-downs prop.n Shire area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Barrowfield prop.n Rohan cemetery in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Barrow-wight prop.n tomb-wraith in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  belfry n siege tower AHD/W2I
  borough n fortified group of houses forming town AHD/W7
  bourg n town, village AHD/W7
  bourgeois n burgher AHD/W7
  brae n hill, hillside, highland W7
  Bree prop.n hillside town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Bree-land prop.n highland area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Brego prop.n 2nd Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  burg n borough, walled bourg, (ancient) fortress W7
  burgess n burgher, citizen of British borough AHD/W7
  burgher n town/borough inhabitant W7
  burglar n thief, one who commits burglary AHD/W7
  burgomaster n mayor, chief magistrate of town AHD/W7
  comfort vb.trans to cheer, give strength/hope to AHD/W7
  deforce vb.trans to keep (lands) by force from rightful owner AHD/W7
  Dwimorberg prop.n haunted mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  effort n conscious exertion of power AHD/W7
  enforce vb.trans to strengthen, give force to AHD/W7
  faubourg n suburb AHD/W7
  force n strength/energy exerted/brought to bear AHD/W7
  fort n strong/fortified place AHD/W7
  fortalice n fortress AHD/W7
  forte adj/adv loud(ly), powerful(ly) AHD/W7
  forte n one's strong point AHD/W7
  fortify vb to make strong AHD/W7
  fortis adj produced with strong expiration/articulatory tenseness AHD/W7
  fortissimo adv very loud AHD/W7
  fortitude n strength AHD/W7
  fortress n stronghold, fortified place AHD/W7
  Hornburg prop.n Rohan fortress in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  iceberg n large floating ice mass detached from glacier AHD/W7
  inselberg n isolated mountain AHD/W2I
  Mundberg/Mundburg prop.n a.k.a. Minas Tirith in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Norbury prop.n town a.k.a. Fornost in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  reinforce vb.trans to strengthen, give more force/effectiveness to AHD
  Tuckborough prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: berch/birg n.str.masc barrow GED/ASD
  berg n barrow CDC
  bur(i)ch n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Middle Dutch: bergfert/bergfrede n protecting shelter CDC
  burch/borch n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Dutch: berg n barrow CDC
  burg n burg, castle, fortified place W7
  burgemeester n burgomaster W7
  herberg n inn TLL
  schouwburg n theater TLL
Old Saxon: berg n.str.masc barrow GED
  bur(u)g n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Middle Low German: borch n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Old High German: berg n.str.masc barrow GED
  bergan vb to cover, protect CDC
  bur(u)g/bur(u)c n burg, bourg, castle, fortified place RPN/CDC
  perac n barrow ASD
Middle High German: berc n barrow ASD
  bercfrit/bercvrit n belfry CDC
  berchfrit/berhfride n belfry CDC
  bergen vb to cover, protect CDC
  burc n burg, bourg, castle, fortified place CDC
German: Berg n.masc barrow ASD
  bergen vb to cover, protect CDC
  Brieg prop.n Brieg GED
  Burg n.fem burg, castle, fortified place LRC
  Bürger n.masc burgher LRC
  Fort n.neut fort LRC
  Gebirge n.neut.coll mountains, mountain range TLL
Old Norse: berg n.neut barrow ASD
Old Icelandic: berg n.str.masc rock, barrow GED
  bjarg n.str.masc rock, barrow GED
Icelandic: berg/bjarg n rock, precipice CDC
  borg n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
  bragr n.masc prince, leader ASD
Norwegian: berg n barrow W7
  isberg n iceberg W7
Danish: bjærg n.neut barrow ASD
  borg n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Swedish: berg n.neut barrow ASD
  borg n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Gothic: *bairgahei n.fem mountainous area GED
  bairgan vb to cover, protect CDC
  *bairgs n barrow RPN
  baurgs n.str.fem burg, tower, fortified place GED
  baurgs-waddjus n.masc city wall KGW
Latin: burgus n.masc burg, bourg W7
  fortis, fortis adj fortified LRC
  fortitudo, fortitudinis n.fem fortitude W7
Vulgar Latin: fortia n.fem strength W7
Late Latin: conforto, confortare vb to strengthen greatly W7
  fortifico, fortificare vb to fortify W7
Middle Latin: ber(e)fredus/berefridus n belfry CDC
  burgus n burg, bourg, castle, fortified place CDC
Medieval Latin: burgator n.masc burglar W7
  burglator n.masc burglar W7
  burgo, burgare, burgatus vb to commit burglary W7
  fortalitia n.fem strength W7
Portuguese: burgo n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
  fôrça n force TLL
  forte adj strong, forte TLL
Spanish: burgo n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
  fuerte adj strong, forte TLL
  fuerza n force TLL
Old French: berfrai/berfray/berefreit n belfry CDC
  berfroi/belefroi n belfry CDC
  borc n.masc bourg W7
  borg/burc n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
  borjois n.masc burgess W7
  burgeis n bourgeois CDC
  conforter vb to console, stengthen W7
  deforcier vb to force, compel W7
  enforcier vb to make stronger W7
  esforcier vb to force W7
  esfort n.masc effort W7
  force n.fem force; scissors, cutters W7
  forcier vb to force W7
  fors adv outside W7
  forsborc n.masc faubourg W7
Old North French: belfroi n belfry AHD
Anglo-French: burgler n.masc burglar W7
Middle French: berfrei n.masc bell-tower W7
  bourg n.masc bourg W7
  bourgeois n.masc town-dweller W7
  effort n.masc effort W7
  enforcier vb to enforce W7
  force n.fem force W7
  forsbourg, fauxbourg n.masc faubourg, suburbs W7
  fort adj strong W7
  forteresce n.fem fortress W7
  fortifier vb to fortify W7
French: beffroi n belfry, watchtower, bell tower CDC
  bourg n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
  bourgeois n bourgeois CDC
  force n.fem force LRC
  fort adj strong, forte TLL
Proven├žal: borc n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
Italian: battifredo n belfry CDC
  borgo n burg, castle, fortified place CDC
  forte adj strong, forte W7
  fortissimo adj.sup strongest W7
  forza n force TLL
Polish: brzeg n bank, shore CDC
Czech: breh n bank, shore CDC
Serbian: brijeg n bank, shore CDC
Old Church Slavonic: bregu' n bank, cliff GED
Russian: beregu n bank, shore CDC
Greek: púrgos n tower RPN
Hittite: parkatar n height GED
  párkus adj high GED
Armenian: barjr adj high GED
  -berj n height GED
  erkna-berj adj sky-high GED
Avestan: baruzah- n height GED
  berezanh n height, barrow CDC
  buruz(ant)- adj high, great, lofty GED
Sanskrit: brhánt- adj high, tall, great, strong RPN
  brihant adj strong, mighty, lofty CDC
  brih/barh vb to be thick/strong CDC
Tocharian B: pärk- vb to rise (sun) RPN
Tocharian A: pärk-, park- vb to rise (sun) RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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