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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bh(e)reu- : bh(e)ru-   'to brew, boil, surge, be wild'

Semantic Fields: to Boil (intrans.); Wave, Surge; Rage, Fury


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: berbaid vb to cook GED
  bruth n fermentation GED
  tipra n.fem source, fountain GED
Middle Irish: berbaim vb to boil RPN
Old Welsh: brwd n fermentation GED
Old English: bærnan vb.wk to burn, kindle, set afire GED
  beornan/bi(e)rnan/byrnan vb.str to burn, blaze, be on fire GED
  brade n roasted meat CDC
  bræd n flesh W7
  brædan/bredan vb to roast, broil GED/ASD
  brand/brond n.str.masc brand, blaze; sword GED/ASD
  bread/breod n.str.neut bread; bit, morsel, fragment GED/ASD
  bredan vb to breed W7
  brennian vb.wk to cause to burn GED
  breowan vb.str to brew, prepare through fermentation GED
  brinnan, bearn, burnon, bornen vb to burn RPN
  brod n.str.fem brood GED
  broð n.neut broth GED/ASD
  brunna n.wk.masc burn; fount, spring, source GED
  bryn-stan n.masc brimstone MEV
  burn n.str.fem burn ODE
  burna/burne n.wk.masc/fem burn; fount, spring, source GED/ASD
  byrne n.str.masc fire, flame GED
Middle English: birnen vb to burn W7
  brand/brond n brand, blaze; sword W7/CDC
  braundisshen/braundis(h)en vb to brandish W7/CDC
  brawn/braun n brawn W7/CDC
  bred-corn n lit. bread-grain MEV
  breden vb to breed W7
  breed/bred(e) n bread W7/MEV
  brended adj brindled AHD
  brewen vb to brew W7
  brewes n broth W7
  brinston/brynstane n brimstone W7/MEV
  broilen vb to broil AHD
  brood n brood W7
  broth n broth W7
  burn/borne n burn W7/MEV
English: blaff n West Indian fish/pork stew AHD
  bourn(e) n burn AHD/W7
  braciola n thin slice of meat (wrapped around stuffing) AHD
  braise vb.trans to slowly cook with fat in closed pot AHD/W7
  Brand prop.n Dale king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  brand n torch, charred/burning wood AHD/W7/GED
  brandade n salted cod dish AHD
  brandish vb.trans to shake/wave (weapon) menacingly AHD/W7
  brandy n brandywine AHD/W7
  Brandybuck prop.n hobbit clan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Brandywine prop.n Shire river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  brandywine n alcoholic liquor distilled from peach wine AHD/W7
  bratwurst n small fried pork sausage AHD
  brawn n full strong muscles of arm/leg AHD/W7
  braze vb to solder with infusible alloy AHD/W7
  brazier n pan to hold burning coals AHD/W7
  bread n baked food: flour/meal mixed with liquid/shortening/leavening AHD/W7
  breed, bred vb.str to reproduce (offspring) by hatching/gestation AHD/W7
  bresaola n dried sliced salt-cured beef AHD
  brew n beverage made by brewing AHD
  brew vb to prepare by infusion/steeping/boiling/fermentation AHD/W7
  brewis n broth AHD/W7
  brimstone n sulfur AHD/W7
  brindled adj tawny/grayish with darker spots/streaks AHD
  broil n brawl, rowdy argument AHD
  broil vb.obs to brawl, engage in rowdy argument AHD
  brood n (family of) animal young AHD/W7
  broth n stock, liquid in which fish/meat/vegetables/cereal grains were cooked AHD/W7
  burn, burnt vb.wk to blaze, set afire AHD/W7
  burn n brook, stream, rivulet AHD/W7
  embroil vb.trans to throw into disorder/confusion AHD/W7
  Erkenbrand prop.n Westfold master in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  fornicate adj having arched/vaulted form AHD/W7
  fornicate vb.trans to have sexual intercourse while unmarried AHD/W7
  fornix n anatomical arch/foldfold AHD/W7
  Herubrand prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  imbroglio n confused mass AHD/W7
  phreatic adj subterranean, re: ground water AHD
  sauerbraten n marinated roasted beef AHD/W7
  Snowbourn prop.n Rohan river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Upbourn prop.n Rohan village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  waybread n bread for journey in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: barna/berna vb.str to burn GED
  brad n.str.neut bread GED
  brand/brond n.str.masc brand, blaze; sword GED
  breda vb to roast, broil GED
  burna n.wk.masc burn; fount, source GED
Frisian: bran n brand; sword ASD
  briede vb to roast ASD
Old Dutch: bernen vb to burn ASD
  brand n brand, blaze; sword CDC
Middle Dutch: borne n burn ODE
  brant adj distilled W7
  brantwijn n brandywine W7
  bro n bread GED
  broeijen vb.wk to brood, warm GED
Dutch: born/bron n.fem bourn ASD
  braden vb to roast, broil ASD
  brand n.masc brand, fire ASD
  branden vb to burn ASD
  brandewijn n brandywine W7
  brand(t)wijn n brandywine CDC
  broed n.str.neut brood GED
  brood n bread TLL
  brouwen vb.str to brew GED
  gebroed n.neut brood ASD
Old Saxon: bradon vb to roast GED
  brinnan/brennan vb.str to burn GED/ASD
  brod n.str.neut bread GED
  brunno n.wk.masc burn; fount, source GED
Middle Low German: born(e) n burn ODE
  brannewin n brandywine CDC
  brant n.str.masc brand, blaze GED
  broien vb.wk to burn, scorch GED
  brot n bread CDC
Low German: brood n bread CDC
Old High German: brant n.str.masc brand, blaze; sword GED
  bratan vb to roast, broil GED
  brato n piece of flesh CDC
  brennen vb.wk to cause to burn GED
  brinnan/brennan/prennan vb.str to burn GED/ASD
  briuwan vb.str to brew GED/RPN
  brod/brod n.neut broth W7/ASD
  brot n.str.neut bread GED
  brunno n.wk.masc burn; fount, source GED
  brunst n.str.fem blaze, heat GED
  prod n broth GED
Middle High German: brant n.masc brand, fire ASD
  brantwein n brandywine CDC
  brate n roasted meat CDC
  braten vb to roast ASD
  brennen vb to burn ASD
  briuwen vb to brew ASD
  brod n.neut broth ASD
  brot n bread CDC
  brüeje n.fem brew, broth GED
  brü(ej)en vb.wk to brew; singe, burn, scorch GED
  brunne/burne n.masc bourn ASD
  bruot n.str.fem brood GED
Early New High German: aus-brüen vb.wk to hatch GED
German: Born n.masc bourn ASD
  Brand n.masc brand, fire ASD
  Branntwein n.masc spirits, brandywine LRC
  Braten n.masc roasted meat W7
  braten vb to roast, broil ASD
  Bratwurst n.fem bratwurst LRC
  brauen vb to brew ASD
  brennen vb to burn ASD
  Brot n.neut bread TLL
  Brühe n.fem broth LRC
  Brunnen n.masc bourn; fount, source ASD
  Brut n.fem brood ASD
  Sauerbraten n sauerbraten, lit. sour roast W7
  Schönbrunn prop.n Viennese palace, lit. beautiful fountain LRC
Old Norse: brenna, brann vb.str.intrans to burn, be on fire LRC
  brenna, brennad vb.wk.trans to burn, light, set on fire LRC
Old Icelandic: brandr n.str.masc brand, blaze GED
  brasa, brasað vb to braze, harden in fire ICE
  brauð n.str.neut bread GED/RPN
  brenna vb.wk to cause to burn GED
  brinna vb.str to burn GED
  broð n broth GED
  brugga vb.wk to brew, prepare through fermentation GED
  brundr n.str.masc blaze, heat GED
  bruni n.str.masc burning GED
  brunnr n.str.masc fount, source GED
  *bryggja vb.str to brew, prepare through fermentation GED
Icelandic: brandr n.masc brand, fire; sword blade ASD
  brasa vb to braze, harden by fire CDC
  brauð n bread TLL
  brugga vb to brew ASD
  brunnr n.masc bourn ASD
Danish: brad n joint of meat CDC
  brand n brand, fire ASD
  brase vb to fry, braise CDC
  brygge vb to brew ASD
  brönd n.masc/fem bourn ASD
  brøt n bread TLL
  brände vb to burn ASD
Swedish: brand n.masc brand, fire ASD
  brasa n flame CDC
  brunn n.masc bourn ASD
  brygga vb to brew ASD
  bröd n bread TLL
  bränna vb to burn ASD
Gothic: *ala-brunsts n.fem burnt offering GED
  brannjan vb to burn ASD
  *brinnan vb.str.III to burn GED
  brinno n.fem fever GED
  brunna n.str.masc fount, source GED
  *gabrannjan vb.wk.I to burn up GED
  *inbrannjan vb.wk.I to set on fire GED
  *ufbrinnan vb.str.III to burn up GED
Crimean Gothic: *broet/broe n bread CGo/GED
  brunna n.str.masc fount, source GED
Latin: defrutum n boiled-down cider GED
  fornix, fornicis n.masc arch, vault; brothel W7
Late Latin: fornicatus vb.ptc arched, vaulted W7
  fornico, fornicare, fornicatus vb to fornicate W7
New Latin: fornix n.fem anatomical arch/fold W7
Portuguese: abrazar vb to set on fire CDC
  bradon/brazon/braon n brawn, piece of flesh CDC
  brandir vb to brandish CDC
  braza n ember, live coal CDC
Old Spanish: brahon n brawn, piece of flesh CDC
Spanish: abrasar vb to set on fire CDC
  blandir vb to brandish CDC
  brasa n.fem ember, live coal CDC
  brasero n.masc brazier LRC
Old French: abraser/esbraser vb to set on fire CDC
  bodne/bonne n bourn; bound, limit, destination CDC
  brand/bran(t) n sword CDC
  brandir vb to brandish W7
  braon n meat, brawn AHD
  broet/broez n.masc broth W7
Anglo-French: breu n brew, broth AHD
  broiller vb to broil, confuse, mix up AHD
Middle French: brandir, brandisse vb to brandish W7
  braon n brawn, muscle W7
  brouiller vb to broil W7
  burn/bourne n.masc bourn W7
  embrouiller vb to entangle, cover up W7
French: borne n.fem bound, limit, marker CDC
  bracier n brazier CDC
  braise n.fem ember, live coal(s) CDC
  braiser vb to braise, cook over live coals CDC
  brandade n brandade AHD
  brandir vb to brandish CDC
  brandon n brand, torch CDC
  braser vb to braze CDC
  embraser vb to set on fire CDC
  embrouiller vb to tangle, cloud over W7
Old Proven├žal: brandar vb to shake, brandish AHD
Old Occitan: brasa vb to braise CDC
Proven├žal: bran n sword CDC
  brandado n brandade AHD
  brandir vb to brandish CDC
  brasa n ember, live coal CDC
  embraser vb to set on fire CDC
Italian: abbraciare vb to set on fire CDC
  braciola n braciola AHD
  bragia/bra(s)cia n ember, live coal CDC
  brandire vb to brandish CDC
  brando n sword CDC
  bresaola n bresaola AHD
  imbrogliare vb to entangle W7
  imbroglio n.masc imbroglio, messiness W7
Russian: bruja n.fem current GED
Homeric Greek: prêthô vb to burn, blow into flame CDC
Greek: phréar n well, reservoir GED
  phréatos n well, reservoir GED
Armenian: atbiur n fount GED
Sanskrit: bhuráti vb to move rapidly GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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