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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhergh-   'to keep, hide, bury'

Semantic Fields: to Save, Preserve, Keep Safe; to Hide, Conceal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: beorgan vb.str to keep, preserve GED
  birgean/bir(i)gan vb to bury ASD
  borg/borh n.masc bail, pledge, surety, security MEV/ASD
  borgian vb to borrow W7
  byrgels/birgels/bergels burials W7/ASD
  byr(i)gan/byri(ge)an vb to bury W7/ASD
Middle English: bargain/bargyne n bargain CDC
  bargainen vb to bargain W7
  barga(y)n/barge(y)n n bargain MEV/CDC
  berial/beriel n burial W7
  borow n bail, surety MEV
  bor(o)wen vb to borrow W7/CDC
  burien vb to bury W7
English: bargain n agreement re: transaction W7
  bargain vb to haggle, negotiate terms of purchase/contract/agreement AHD/W7
  borrow vb to receive with intention of returning same/equivalent AHD/W7
  Bucklebury prop.n hobbit town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  burial n tomb, grave AHD/W7
  bury vb.trans to place (as if) in earth/sea AHD/W7
Old Frisian: borga vb to borrow ASD
Old Dutch: berghen vb to bury ASD
Dutch: bergen vb to bury ASD
  borgen vb to borrow ASD
Old Saxon: burgisli n tomb W7
  gi-bergan vb.str to keep, preserve GED
Old High German: bergan/perkan vb.str to keep, preserve, shelter GED/ASD
  borgen vb to borrow CDC
Middle High German: bergen vb to save, protect, preserve ASD
  borgen vb to borrow ASD
German: bergen vb to bury; salvage, recover ASD
  borgen vb to borrow ASD
Old Norse: biarga vb to save, protect, preserve ASD
  byrgja vb to include ASD
Old Icelandic: bjarga vb.str to keep, preserve GED
Icelandic: borga vb to borrow CDC
Danish: bjerge vb to save, protect, preserve ASD
  borge vb to borrow ASD
Swedish: berga vb to save, protect, preserve ASD
  borga vb to borrow ASD
Gothic: *bairgan vb.str.III to keep GED
Middle Latin: *barcania/barcanium n bargain, traffic CDC
Portuguese: barganha n bargain CDC
Old French: bargai(g)ne n bargain MEV/CDC
  bargaignier vb to bargain AHD
Middle French: bargaignier vb to bargain W7
Old Occitan: barganh/barganka n bargain CDC
Italian: bargagna/bargagno n bargain CDC
Lithuanian: bìrginti vb to be parsimonious GED
Old Church Slavonic: brego, bresti vb to care for GED
Russian: bérezno adj careful GED
  berech vb to save W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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