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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhes-   'to spread, smear, rub on'

Semantic Fields: to Strew, Spread Out; to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Breton: bezo n.masc birch ASD
Old English: bes(e)ma n.masc besom KEW/ASD
  sand n.masc sand AHD/ASD
Middle English: beseme n besom W7
  sand n sand W7
English: besom n broom: twigs/fibers on long handle for sweeping LRC
  epsilon n 5th letter of Greek alphabet AHD
  palimpsest n writing material reused after erasure of earlier writing AHD/W7
  psephology n study of political elections AHD
  psilomelane n hydrous black manganese oxide AHD
  sabulous adj sandy, gritty AHD/W7
  sand n loose granular material produced by rock disintegration AHD/W7
  Sandheaver prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  sandy adj re: sand (in color/composition) W7
  Sandyman prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  upsilon n 20th letter of Greek alphabet AHD/W7
Frisian: besma n.masc besom ASD
Old Dutch: bes(s)em n.masc besom ASD
Dutch: bezem n.masc besom TLL
  zand n sand TLL
Old High German: besamo/besemo n besom ASD/KDW
  sant n sand W7
German: Besen n.masc besom TLL/ASD
  Epsilon n epsilon LRC
  Sand n.masc sand LRC
  sandig adj sandy, gritty LRC
Danish: sand n sand TLL
Swedish: sand n sand TLL
Latin: palimpsestus n.masc/fem parchment scraped twice W7
  sabulosus adj sandy W7
  sabulum n.neut coarse sand W7
Greek: palimpsestos adj scraped again W7
  psammos n.fem sand W7
  psen vb to rub, scrape W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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