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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bheu-, bheuu-, bhua-, bhue- : bhou- : bhu-   'to be, exist; grow, prosper'

Semantic Fields: to Grow; Strong, Mighty, Powerful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: both n.fem hut, bothy GED/AHD
  boi was GED
Irish: bo(i)th n booth CDC
Gaelic: buth n booth CDC
Welsh: bod n hut GED
  bum was TLL
Old English: beam n.str.masc tree, beam GED
  beo, bist, biþ am, are, is TLL
  beon/bion vb.anom to be W7/ASD
  beor n.str.neut beer GED
  beoþ are TLL
  beow n barley GED
  bogian vb.wk to dwell, inhabit, settle (at) GED/RPN
  bold n.neut house, dwelling, building AHD/ASD
  botl n.neut hall, house, abode, dwelling IEW/ASD
  bu/by n home, dwelling GED/RPN/ASD
  bu(g)an, bude, byne vb.irr to live, dwell, inhabit ASD
  bur n.neut bower, shelter ASD
  buw(i)an vb to dwell, cultivate GED
  byldan vb to build W7
  byre n byre W7
  cwic-beam n.masc quick-beam, lit. quick-tree (type of poplar?) ASD
  gebur n.masc dweller W7/ASD
  husbonda/husbunda n.masc husband, master of house W7/ASD
  impe n.fem imp, scion ASD
  impian vb to imp W7
  neahgebur n.masc neighbor, lit. near-dweller W7/ASD
Middle English: be(e)/beo am CDC
  beem/beme n beam W7/CDC
  be(e)n/beon vb.anom to be MEV/W7/CDC
  be(e)st/beost/bist are CDC
  be(o)th is CDC
  bilawe n bylaw W7
  bilden vb to build W7
  bilt n dwelling MEV
  bothe n booth W7
  boun(e)/bowne adj bound, prompt W7/MEV
  *bour n boor, dweller CDC
  bour(e)/bower n bower, abode W7/MEV
  byre/bere n byre W7/MEV
  future n future W7
  husbonde n husband W7
  impen vb to imp W7
  neighbor n neighbor W7
  phisik n medical/natural science W7
  phisiken vb to administer medical treatment W7
English: apophysis n expanded/projecting part of organism AHD/W7
  be, been vb.anom to exist, have same connotation as AHD/W7
  beam n long piece of heavy timber used in construction AHD/W7
  Boer prop.n white South African of Dutch descent; rebel in Boer War LRC
  bondage n villein tenure/service AHD/W7
  boodle n group of people AHD/W7
  boom n spar used to extend foot of sail/facilitate mooring/handling of cargo AHD/W7
  boor n peasant AHD/W7
  booth n temporary shelter for livestock/field workers AHD/W7
  bothy n booth, basic shelter AHD
  bound adj ready AHD/W7
  bower n attractive dwelling/retreat AHD/W7
  build, built vb.wk to construct, form by joining materials into composite whole AHD/W7
  bumpkin n awkward, unsophisticated rustic AHD/W7
  bumpkin n projecting boom of ship AHD/W7
  bustle n noisy excited activity AHD
  bustle vb to (cause to) move busily/energetically AHD
  Butterbur(r) prop.n Bree surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  bylaw n rule adopted by organization for government and regulation of affairs AHD/W7
  byre n cow barn AHD/W7
  diaphysis n shaft of long bone AHD/W7
  diphyodont adj having 2 sets of teeth AHD/CDC
  epiphysis n separately ossifying bone part later ankylosed to main part AHD/W7
  fiat n command that creates AHD/W7
  forebear n forefather, ancestor AHD/W7
  future adj (that) which is to be AHD/W7
  Grimbold prop.n Rohan marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Hardbottle prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  husband n married man AHD/W7
  hypophysis n pituitary body AHD/W7
  imp n bud, shoot, graft W7
  imp vb.trans to graft/repair (with feather) AHD/W7
  metaphysics n philosophy of ontology/cosmology/epistemology W7
  Monophysite prop.n member of certain early Christian heretical sect LRC
  neighbor n one living/located near another AHD/W7
  neophyte n proselyte, new convert AHD/W7
  phyle n largest (ancient Athenian) political subdivision AHD/W7
  phyletic adj phylogenetic AHD
  phylogenetic adj re: phylogeny AHD
  phylogeny n evolution of genetically related organisms AHD/W7
  phylum n line of descent within group AHD/W7
  physic vb.trans to treat with/administer medicine to AHD/W7
  physics n art/practice of healing disease AHD/W7
  physi(o)- pfx nature AHD/W7
  physique n bodily makeup, referring to strength/structure/appearance/constitution AHD/W7
  -phyte n.pfx plant having (certain) habitat/characteristic AHD/W7
  phyt(o)- pfx plant AHD
  phyton n plant leaf with stem AHD/W7
  Quickbeam prop.n Ent a.k.a. Bregalad in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  symphysis n somewhat movable bone articulation in body's median plane AHD/W7
  tracheophyte n vascular plant having conducting system of phloem/xylem AHD/W7
American English: caboodle n boodle CDC
British English: quick-beam n.dial mountain-ash OED
Scots English: bear n one who exists W7
  been vb.anom to be W7
  bothy n bunkhouse, small cottage LRC
  buith n booth CDC
  forebear n ancestor W7
Old Frisian: bam n.str.masc tree GED
  bem am CDC
  bogia vb.wk to dwell, inhabit GED
  bouwje vb to dwell, inhabit ASD
  bowa/buwa vb to dwell, cultivate GED
Frisian: boer n.masc boor, farmer, dweller ASD
North Frisian: baem/beamme/bjemme n tree ASD
Middle Dutch: beboer n rustic, farmer, husbandman CDC
  bodel n riches, property; boodle AHD
  bomme n cask W7
  bommekijn n little barrel W7
  ghebure/ghebuer n neighbor CDC
Dutch: ben (I) am TLL
  bent (you) are TLL
  boedel n lot, estate W7
  Boer prop.n Boer W7
  boer n.masc boor, farmer, dweller W7/ASD
  boerderij n farm TLL
  boom n.masc tree; bar, pole, beam, boom W7/ASD
  bouw n.masc bower, dwelling ASD
  bouwen vb to dwell RPN
  buur n neighbor CDC
  gebouw n building TLL
Flemish: boom n tree W7
  boomken n shrub W7
Old Saxon: bist are CDC
  bium am CDC
  bom n.str.masc tree GED
  bu n.neut home, property GED/ASD
  buan vb to dwell, cultivate GED/RPN
Middle Low German: bode n.str.fem booth, hut, tent, abode GED
  bom n tree CDC
  (ge)bur n boor, husbandman CDC
Low German: boom n tree; bar, pole, beam, boom CDC
  buur/bur n.masc boor, farmer; neighbor, citizen ASD/CDC
Old High German: bim/pim am W7/CDC
  bior n.str.neut beer GED
  boum/poum n.str.masc tree GED/ASD
  bu n.str.neut home, dwelling, cultivation GED
  bur n.str.masc cage, building GED
  bu(w)an/buen vb to dwell, cultivate GED/RPN
  gibur(o) n boor, rustic, husbandman CDC
  impfon vb to imp, graft W7
  nahgibur n neighbor W7
  pis(t) are CDC
  pu n.masc dwelling ASD
Middle High German: bin am ASD
  bist are CDC
  boum n.masc tree ASD
  bouwen/b(i)uwen vb to dwell, inhabit ASD
  bu/bou n.masc dwelling ASD
  bude/buode n.str.fem booth, hut, tent, abode GED
  gebur(e) n boor, rustic, husbandman CDC
German: Bau n.masc building ASD
  bauen vb to build; dwell, inhabit ASD
  Bauer n.masc boor, farmer ASD
  Bauer n.masc/neut cage, bower, aviary GED/ASD
  Bauernhof n farm TLL
  Baum n.masc tree ASD
  bin am ASD
  bist are TLL
  Bude n.fem booth, hut, shack LRC
  Bure prop.n.masc Boer LRC
  Gebäude n building TLL
Old Norse: bondi n yeoman, franklin, husband W7
  búa, búinn vb to live, prepare, be ready; settle LRC
  buþ n booth W7
  byggja, bygð vb to build; dwell, inhabit LRC
  bylög n bylaw, rule adopted by town W7
  byr n town W7
  husbondi n husband, householder W7
Old Icelandic: baðmr n.str.masc tree GED
  ból n lair RPN
  bol n.neut dwelling, animal lair GED
  bu n dwelling, household; farming GED/RPN
  bua vb to dwell, prepare GED
  buð n.str.fem booth, hut, tent, abode GED
  bur n.str.neut chamber, building for stores GED
  bygg n barley GED
  byggva vb to inhabit GED
  byr/boer n.str.masc house, farm GED
  borr n.str.masc tree GED
Icelandic: baðmr n.masc tree ASD
  bu n.neut dwelling ASD
  bua/boa vb to dwell, inhabit ASD/CDC
  buð n booth, dwelling CDC
  bur n.neut bower ASD
Norwegian: bomm/bumm/bumb n boom, bar CDC
Old Danish: boþ n booth, stall, dwelling AHD
Danish: bo n.masc/fem dwelling ASD
  bod n booth, stall CDC
  bo(e) vb to dwell GED/ASD
  bom n boom, beam, bar, rail, perch CDC
  bonde n farmer LRC
  buur n.neut bower ASD
  by n town TLL
  bygning n building TLL
Old Swedish: bagn n.str.masc tree GED
  bo vb to dwell GED
  boþ n.str.fem booth, hut, tent, abode GED
Swedish: bo n.masc dwelling ASD
  bo vb to dwell, inhabit ASD
  bod n booth, stall CDC
  bom n boom, beam, bar, rail, perch CDC
  bonde n farmer TLL
  bur n.masc bower ASD
  by n village TLL
  byggnad n building TLL
Gothic: bagms n.masc tree GED/ASD
  bauan vb.str.VII to live, dwell, inhabit GED/RPN
Latin: fiat vb.subj let it be W7
  fio, fieri vb.defc to become, be made LRC
  fui, fuisti, fuit was, were W7
  futurus vb.ptc about to be W7
  physica physics, natural science W7
  physicus adj of nature W7
  superbus, superba, superbum adj haughty LRC
Late Latin: neophytus n.masc beginner W7
Medieval Latin: Monophysita n.fem Monophysite W7
New Latin: apophysis n.fem bringing forth W7
  byre n.fem a cow barn W7
  diaphysis n.fem the shaft of a long bone W7
  epiphysis n.fem separated ossification of a bone W7
  hypophysis n.fem pituitary body W7
  phylum n.neut a direct line of descent withing a group W7
  phyton n.neut a structural unit of a plant W7
  symphysis n.fem state of growing together W7
  Tracheophyta n.fem genus name W7
Spanish: fuí, fuiste, fué was, were TLL
Old French: fisique n.fem medicine W7
  futur adj about to be W7
French: fus, fut was, were TLL
  physique adj physical, bodily W7
Italian: fui, fosti, fu was, were TLL
Old Prussian: buttan n house GED
  buwinanti dwell! GED
Old Lithuanian: bu vb.pret was GED
Lithuanian: bùtas n house GED
  buti, yrà, bùvo vb to be LRC
  buti vb to be GED
  buvis n life, existence GED
Latvian: but, esmu, biju vb to be LRC
Polish: buda n booth CDC
Czech: bouda n booth CDC
  byt n home GED
Sorbian: buda n booth CDC
Old Church Slavonic: by vb.pret was GED
  byvati, byvajo, byvajesi vb to be LRC
  byti, bodo, bodesi vb to be, become LRC
  prebyti, prebodo, prebodesi vb to abide, remain LRC
Russian: budka n booth CDC
Albanian: buj vb to spend the night RPN
Greek: apophuein vb to send out branches AHD
  apophusis n branch, apophysis AHD
  diaphyesthai vb to grow between W7
  diaphysis n.fem spinous process of the tibia W7
  epiphyesthai vb to grow on W7
  epiphysis n.fem growth W7
  éphu vb.aor was GED
  neophytos adj newly planted, newly converted W7
  symphyesthai vb to grow together W7
  symphysis n.fem state of growing together W7
  hypophyein vb to grow beneath W7
  hypophysis n.fem attachment underneath W7
  phyesthai vb to grow W7
  phúê n.fem stature LRC
  phyle n.fem tribe W7
  phylon n.neut tribe, race W7
  phûma n growth GED
  phynai vb to be born, be by nature W7
  phúomai vb to become GED
  physika physical things, natural things W7
  physike n.fem study of nature W7
  physikos adj of nature W7
  physis n.fem growth, nature W7
  phyton n.neut plant W7
  phúô vb to grow, become, bring forth LRC
  phôleós n cave inhabited by wild animals GED
Medieval Greek: Monophysites adj Monophysite W7
Avestan: bavaiti vb to be, become GED
Sanskrit: ábhut vb.aor was GED
  bahús n arm GED
  bhávati vb to be, exist, become GED/RPN
  bhú n.fem earth, site, place ASD
  bhú vb to be, become, spring up ASD
  bhuma n earth, being GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
2=2nd person
3=3rd person
VII=class 7
aor=aorist (tense)
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
subj=subjunctive (mood)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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