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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 1. bheug-   'to flee, escape, seek refuge'

Semantic Field: to Flee


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle English: feverfew n feverfew W7
  fugitive n fugitive W7
  refuge n refuge W7
English: apophyge n outward curve of column where shaft joins base/capital AHD
  centrifugal adj proceeding/acting in direction away from center/axis AHD/W7
  febrifuge n antipyretic AHD/W7
  feverfew n perennial European composite herb AHD/W7
  fugacious adj evanescent, lasting short time AHD/W7
  -fuge n.pfx something that drives away AHD/W7
  fugitive adj running away, intending flight AHD/W7
  fugitive n one who flees/runs away LRC
  fugue n polyphonic music with themes imitated by successive voices AHD/W7
  refuge n shelter/protection from danger/distress AHD/W7
  refugium n area free of recent ecological change AHD
  subterfuge n deception in order to evade/escape/conceal AHD/W7
Old High German: biogan vb to bend W7
German: Fuge n.fem fugue; gap LRC
Latin: fuga n.fem flight W7
  fugax, fugacis adj fleeing W7
  fugio, fugere, fugi, fugitus vb to flee, avoid LRC
  fugitivus n.masc fugitive W7
  fugo, fugare vb to put to flight W7
  profugus, profuga, profugum adj fugitive LRC
  refugio, refugere vb to escape W7
  refugium n.neut refuge W7
  subterfugio, subterfugere vb to escape, evade W7
  suffugium, suffugii n.neut refuge, shelter LRC
Late Latin: febrifuga adj re: reducing fever W7
  febrifugia n.fem centaury: medicial plant W7
  -fuga sfx re: flight W7
  subterfugium n.neut trick, subterfuge W7
New Latin: centrifugus adj centrifugal, going toward center W7
  febrifuga n.fem febrifuge W7
Portuguese: fugir vb to flee TLL
Spanish: huir vb to flee TLL
Anglo-French: fevrefue n.fem feverfew W7
Middle French: fugitif n.masc fugitive W7
  refuge n.masc refuge W7
French: fébrifuge adj against fever W7
  -fuge sfx act of repelling W7
  fuir vb to flee TLL
Italian: fuga n.fem fugue; flight W7
  fuggire vb to flee TLL
Greek: apophugê n.fem escape, place of refuge AHD/LS
  pheúgô vb to flee, escape LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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