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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhlendh-   'dim, pale, blond, reddish'

Semantic Fields: Yellow; Red


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: blandan/blondan, bleond, bleondon, blanden vb.str to blend GED/RPN/ASD
  blendan vb.wk to blind, deceive GED/RPN
  blind adj blind RPN
  blonden-feax adj having gray/mixed-colored hair RPN
  liþblandus adj thick (re: soup) W7
Middle English: blenden vb to blend W7
  blenden vb to blind W7
  blind/blynd(e) adj blind, deluded W7/MEV/CDC
  blind n blindfold W7
  blinden vb to (become) blind, deceive CDC
  blindfelden/blin(d)fellen/blyndfellen vb to blindfold, strike blind W7/CDC
  blondren/blunderen vb to blunder CDC
  blunder n blunder, trouble MEV
  blundren vb.wk to blunder, confuse, stir up GED/RPN
English: blend, blent vb.wk to mix AHD/W7
  blende n sphalerite AHD/W7
  blind adj sightless, unable to see AHD/W7
  blind n shade, screen, shutter W7
  blind vb to make/strike blind LRC
  blindfold vb.trans to cover eyes with scarf/bandage AHD/W7
  blond(e) adj flaxen/golden/pale-brown in color W7/IEW
  blunder n mistake, confusion MEV
  blunder vb to make mistake, move confusedly GED
  purblind adj wholly blind AHD/W7
Old Frisian: blenda/blinda vb.wk to blind GED/ASD
  blenda vb.wk to blend GED
  blind adj blind GED
Old Dutch: blind adj blind ASD
Dutch: blind adj blind ASD
  blinden vb to blind ASD
  blond adj/n blond CDC
Old Saxon: blandan vb.str to blend GED
  blind adj blind GED
Middle Low German: blenden vb.wk to blind GED
Old High German: blandan/blantan vb.str to blend ASD/GED/RPN
  blenten/blentjan vb to blind W7/ASD
  blenten vb.wk to blend GED
  blinden vb to become blind CDC
  blint adj blind GED
  plenten vb.wk to blind GED
Middle High German: blanden vb to blend CDC
  blenden vb to blind ASD
  blint adj blind ASD
  blunt adj blond, fair-haired IEW
German: Blende n.fem blind; blende W7/CDC
  blenden vb to blind W7
  blind adj blind ASD
  blond adj blond IEW
Old Norse: blanda, blett, blandað vb.str to blend LRC
  blindr adj blind LRC
Old Icelandic: blanda vb.str to blend GED
  blinda vb to blind RPN
  blindr adj blind GED
  blunda vb.wk to sleep, close one's eyes GED/RPN
  blundr n dozing, slumber RPN
Icelandic: blanda vb to blend CDC
  blinda vb to blind ASD
  blindr adj blind ASD
  blunda vb to doze CDC
  blunðr n nap, doze CDC
Danish: blande vb to blend CDC
  blind adj blind ASD
  blinde vb to blind CDC
  blond adj/n blond CDC
  blund n nap, doze CDC
  blunde vb to doze, slumber CDC
  for-blinde vb to blind ASD
Swedish: blanda vb.str to blend ASD
  blind adj blind ASD
  blund n nap, doze CDC
  blunda vb to doze, slumber CDC
  för-blinda vb to blind ASD
Gothic: *af-blindnan vb to become blind GED
  blandan vb.str.III to blend; associate with GED/RPN
  blinds adj blind RPN
  *ga-blindjan vb.wk.I to make blind GED
Middle Latin: blundus/blondus adj/n blond CDC
Medieval Latin: blundus/blondos adj/n blond, yellow IEW/RPN
Spanish: blondo n/adj blond RPN
Old French: blond(e) n/adj blond, light-colored ODE
French: blond(e) adj/n blond, fair-haired (one) IEW/RPN
Old Proven├žal: blon n/adj blond RPN
Italian: biondo adj/n blond, fair-haired (one) IEW/RPN
Lithuanian: blandùs adj cloudy, impure, unclean GED/RPN
  blendzas adj blind CDC
  blendziù, blesti vb to become dark RPN
  blesti vb to blend food with flour GED
  blestis vb to become dark GED/RPN
Latvian: blenst adj dim CDC
Old Church Slavonic: bledu adj dim, pale CDC
  bleda, blesti vb to err GED
  bledo, blesti vb to go blindly RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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