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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 2. bhleu- : bhluu- : bhlu-   'bad, weak, miserable'

Semantic Fields: Bad; Weak, Infirm; Sad


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bleat adj poor, wretched, miserable RPN/IEW
  bleate adv wretchedly, miserably ASD
  bleað adj shy, timid; gentle, peaceful; silly, stupid IEW/ASD
English: blot n weak/exposed point; exposed game piece W7/ODE
Scots English: blait adj naked, exposed, destitute ASD
Old Frisian: blat adj naked, exposed, destitute, miserable ASD/ODE
Frisian: bleat adj naked, exposed, destitute ASD
Middle Dutch: bloot/blot adj poor, naked; wretched, miserable ODE/ASD
Dutch: bloot adj naked, exposed; wretched, miserable ODE/ASD
Old Saxon: blodi adj coy, modest, bashful IEW
Middle Low German: blot/bloot adj bare, mere; poor, naked IEW/ODE
Old High German: bloz adj bare, mere ODE
Middle High German: bloede adj timid; fragile IEW
  bloz adj bare, mere; wretched, miserable IEW/ASD
German: blöde adj silly, stupid, idiotic, imbecilic IEW
  bloss adj bare, mere IEW
Old Icelandic: blauþr/blautr adj soft, weak, timorous RPN/IEW
Icelandic: blautr adj wretched, miserable ASD
Gothic: blauþjan vb to void, abolish RPN
Greek: phlaûros adj bad, shabby, useless RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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