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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: bhleu-(k-)   'to burn'

Semantic Field: to Burn, Scorch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bæl n.neut flame, funeral pyre W7/ASD
  blysa/blisa n.wk.masc flame, torch W7/ASD
  blyscan/bliscan vb to blush W7/CDC
  *blysian vb to blush CDC
Middle English: blus(s)hen/blyschen vb to blush W7/CDC
English: blush n look, glance, glimpse; reddening of face OED
  blush vb.intrans to glow, redden (e.g. in face) AHD/W7
Middle Dutch: blosen vb to blush CDC
Dutch: blozen vb to blush CDC
Middle Low German: blos(ch)en vb to blush CDC
  blus n flame CDC
Low German: bleusteren vb to glow, inflame, become red OED
  blüse n flame CDC
  blüsen vb to set on fire CDC
  blüsken vb to blush CDC
Old High German: bluhhen vb to burn brightly W7
Old Norse: bal n.neut flame, funeral pyre ASD
  blys n.neut torch, flame, blaze OED
Danish: blus n torch CDC
  blusse vb to blaze, blush CDC
Swedish: bloss n torch CDC
  blossa vb to blaze CDC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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