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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhrater-   'brother, family member'

Semantic Fields: Brother; Relative(s)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: brathir n brother GED
Irish: brathair n.masc brother ASD
Welsh: brodyr/brawd n.masc brother ASD
Old English: broðor/broðer/broder n.masc brother GED/ASD
  gebroðra/gebroðru/gebroðro brethren LRC
Middle English: boy n boy W7
  brother n brother W7
  confrere n confrere W7
  fraternal adj fraternal W7
  fratricide n fratricide W7
  frere/fryer n friar W7
English: boy n male child IEW
  brethren brothers W7
  brother n male sibling AHD/W7
  bully n habitually cruel/overbearing person AHD
  confrere n comrade, colleague AHD/W7
  Fra prop.n Brother (religious title) AHD/W7
  fraternal adj re: brothers AHD/W7
  fraternity n guild, brotherhood AHD/W7
  fraternize vb to mingle/associate as brothers AHD/W7
  fratricide n one who kills a sibling AHD/W7
  friar n member of mendicant order AHD/W7
  pal n partner AHD/W7
  phratry n brotherhood, (religious) clan/tribe AHD/W7
American English: bro brother LRC
British English: fraternise vb to fraternize LRC
Old Frisian: brother/broder n.masc brother GED/ASD
Frisian: boi n boy W7
Dutch: broeder n.masc brother ASD
Old Saxon: broðar n.masc brother GED
  gibroðar brethren ASD
Old High German: bruoder/bruodor/brodar n.masc brother GED/ASD
  gapruoder brethren ASD
Middle High German: bruoder n.masc brother ASD
German: Bruder n.masc brother ASD
  Gebrüder brethren ASD
Old Norse: bróðir/bródir n.masc brother ASD
Old Icelandic: broðir n.masc brother GED
Danish: broder n.masc brother ASD
Swedish: broder n.masc brother ASD
  bror n brother TLL
Gothic: broþar n.wk.masc brother GED
Crimean Gothic: bruder n.masc brother GED
Latin: frater, fratris n.masc brother GED
  fraternus adj fraternal, re: brother W7
  fratricida n.fem fratricide W7
  fratricidium n.neut killing of a brother W7
Medieval Latin: confrater n.masc confrere, fellow, brother W7
  fraternalis adj fraternal, re: brother W7
Old French: frere n.masc friar, brother W7
Middle French: confrere n.masc confrere, member of same fraternity W7
  fratricide n.masc killing of a brother W7
Italian: Fra prop.n.masc Fra [religious title] W7
  frate n.masc friar, monk W7
Old Prussian: brote, brati n brother GED
Lithuanian: brólis n.masc brother GED
  broter-èlis n brother GED
Latvian: bràlis n brother GED
Old Church Slavonic: brat(r)u' n.masc brother GED
  brat(r)u'ja n phratry GED
Russian: brat n brother LRC
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: phratría n.fem phratry GED
  phrêtêr n phratry member GED
Doric: pátra n.fem phratry LS
Ionic: phrêtrê n.fem phratry LS
Homeric Greek: phrátra n.fem phratry, people of kindred race GED
Attic: phratría n.fem phratry LS
Greek: phrátêr/phrátôr n.masc brother, clansman, phratry member LRC
  phrátra n.fem phratry GED
Classical Armenian: elbayr n brother LRC
Old Persian: brata n brother GED
Avestan: bhratar- n brother LRC
  brata n brother GED
Sanskrit: bhratar- n brother LRC
  bhrata n brother GED
  bhratrám n phratry GED
  bhratryam n phratry GED
Romani: ph(r)al n brother, friend W7
Tocharian B: pracer n brother LRC
  procer n brother GED
Tocharian A: pracar n brother GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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