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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. bhreg-   'to break'

Semantic Field: to Break


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: braigid breaks wind W7
Old English: bræcon adj fragile GED
  bre(a)htm/bearhtm/beorhtm/byrhtm n.str.masc noise GED/ASD
  brecan vb to break W7
  broc, brec n breech(es), leg covering(s) W7
  bryce n breach, breaking, fragment GED
  gebrecan, gebræc, gebræcon, gebrocen vb.str.IV to break, destroy, subdue LRC
  gebroc n.neut fragment GED/ASD
  gebrocian, gebrocede, gebroced vb.wk.II to crush, hurt, afflict LRC
Middle English: brake n brake, thicket W7
  braken vb to spew, vomit W7
  brayen vb to bray W7
  breche n breach W7
  breech, breeches n breech(es) W7
  breken vb to break W7
  fraccioun n fraction W7
  fragment n fragment W7
  frail adj frail W7
  frangible adj frangible W7
  refreyn vb to refrain W7
  saxifrage n saxifrage W7
  suffrage n suffrage W7
English: anfractuous adj tortuous, full of windings/intricate turnings AHD/W7
  bracken n large coarse fern AHD/W7
  brake n toothed machine/instrument for separating out flax/hemp fiber AHD/W7
  brake n thicket (e.g. of ferns) AHD/W7
  brash n mass of fragments (e.g. of ice) AHD/W7
  brash vb to breach a wall AHD/W7
  bray vb to utter cry characteristic of donkey AHD/W7
  breach n infraction/violation of law/standard/obligation AHD/W7
  break, broke/brake, broken vb.str to render in pieces suddenly/violently AHD/W7
  breccia n rock with sharp-angled fragments in fine-grained matrix AHD
  breech, breeches n pants, short trousers IEW/W7
  brioche n roll made from light yeast dough with ample eggs/butter AHD/W7
  chamfer n beveled edge AHD/W7
  defray vb.trans to pay/provide for payment AHD/W7
  diffraction n prismatic effect on light by ruled surface etc. AHD/W7
  fractal n irregular self-similar geometric shape AHD
  fracted adj broken AHD/W7
  fraction n representation of two numbers divided AHD/W7
  fractious adj troublesome, refractory AHD/W7
  fracture n break, rupture AHD/W7
  fragile adj frail, easily broken/destroyed AHD/W7
  fragment n piece detached/broken off AHD/W7
  frail adj eaily led into evil AHD/W7
  frangible adj breakable AHD/W7
  infract vb.trans to violate, infringe AHD/W7
  infrangible adj non-breakable AHD/W7
  infringe vb to frustrate, defeat AHD/W7
  irrefragable adj inviolable, impossible to deny/refute AHD/W7
  irrefrangible adj incapable of refraction AHD/W7
  ossifrage n European bird of prey AHD/W7
  refract vb.trans to bend (e.g. path of light) AHD/W7
  refrain n chorus, regularly recurring phrase/verse at end of stanza AHD/W7
  refringent adj refracting, refractive AHD/W7
  sassafras n tall eastern North American tree AHD/W7
  saxifrage n mostly perennial herb with pentamerous flowers AHD/W7
  septifragal adj re: dehiscing by breaking away AHD/W7
  suffragan n diocesan bishop subordinate to metropolitan AHD/W7
  suffrage n supplication, intercessory prayer AHD/W7
Old Frisian: breka vb.str to break GED
  breke n.str.masc breach GED
Frisian: brekke vb to break ASD
Middle Dutch: broc n.wk.masc crumb GED
Dutch: breken vb to break ASD
  broek n breech, trousers TLL
Old Saxon: braht n.str.masc crash GED
  brahtum n.str.masc noise GED
  brekan vb.str to break GED
  brocnussi n ruin GED
Middle Low German: brak n.str.masc crash GED
  broc n.wk.masc crumb GED
  broke n.str.masc breach GED
Old High German: braht n.str.masc crash GED
  brehhan vb to break W7
  brocco/brocko n.wk.masc crumb, fragment GED
  bruh n.str.masc breach GED
  (ga)brechan vb.str to break GED/ASD
Middle High German: brach n.str.masc crash GED
  brëchen vb to break ASD
German: brechen vb to break ASD
  Bruch n.masc breach, break, crash LRC
Old Norse: braka, brakað vb to crack, creak LRC
Old Icelandic: braigd n fart GED
  brak n.str.neut creaking noise GED
  brakan n.str.fem creaking GED
Icelandic: brak n.neut noise ASD
  braka vb to creak ASD
Danish: brag n.neut noise ASD
  bräkke vb to break ASD
Old Swedish: brækne n fern W7
Swedish: brak n.neut noise ASD
  bråka/bräcka vb to break ASD
Gothic: brakja n.fem struggle GED
  *brikan vb.str.IV to break, destroy GED
  *gabrikan vb.str.IV to break up GED
  *gabruka n.str.fem crumb, fragment GED
  ufbrikan vb.str.IV to despise GED
  usbruknan vb.wk.IV to be broken off GED
Latin: anfractus n.masc coil, bend W7
  diffractus vb.ptc broken apart W7
  diffringo, diffringere vb to break apart W7
  fragilis adj fragile GED
  fragmentum n.neut a broken part W7
  fragor, fragoris n.masc noise, crash(ing) GED
  frango, frangere, fregi, fractus vb to break W7
  infringo, infringere, infregi, infractus vb to break off W7
  ossifraga n.fem sea eagle W7
  ossifragus adj bone-breaking W7
  refragor, refragari, refractus vb to oppose W7
  refringo, refringere vb to refract, break up, open W7
  saxifraga n.fem saxifrage W7
  saxifragus n.masc breaking rocks W7
  suffragium n.neut vote, ballot, suffrage, lit. noisy agreement GED
  suffragor, suffragari vb to support with one's vote W7
Late Latin: anfractuosus adj anfractuous W7
  fractio, fractionis n.fem act of breaking W7
  infrangibilis adj unbreakable W7
  irrefragabilis adj impossible to oppose to W7
  saxifraga n.fem saxifrage W7
Medieval Latin: frangibilis adj frangible W7
  frango, frangere vb to break W7
  suffraganeus adj of support W7
  suffragium n.neut support, prayer W7
New Latin: diffractio, diffractionis n.fem diffraction W7
Spanish: sasafrás n.masc sassafras W7
Old French: braire vb to cry W7
  frai n.masc expenditure, damage by breaking W7
  frayer vb to defray, spend W7
Middle French: chanfraindre, chanfreint vb to bevel W7
  chant n.masc edge W7
  deffrayer vb to defray W7
  fra(g)ile adj frail, fragile W7
  frangible adj possible to break W7
  frayer vb to rub, expend W7
  infrangible adj impossible to break W7
  refraindre vb to resound, restrain W7
  saxifrage n.masc saxifrage, an herb W7
  suffrage n.masc suffrage W7
French: anfractueux adj rugged W7
  brioche n.fem brioche, pastry W7
  fragile adj fragile TLL
  frêle adj frail TLL
Italian: breccia n breccia AHD
Lithuanian: barsketi n clatter GED
Sanskrit: giri-bhráj- adj breaking out of the mountains GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
II=class 2
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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