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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhrei-, bhri-   'to fray, pierce, cut with sharp tool'

Semantic Field: to Cut


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: brissim I break W7
Welsh: briw n wound RPN
Old English: bryne n brine, salt liquor W7/ASD
Middle English: brine n brine W7
English: affricate n vocal stop with immediately following release AHD/W7
  brine n saltwater, saline solution IEW
  brisance n crushing/shattering effect of explosive AHD/W7
  debris n ruins, remains of something destroyed/broken down AHD/W7
  dentifrice n liquid/paste/powder for cleaning teeth AHD/W7
  fray vb to fret, wear (cloth edge) by rubbing AHD/W7
  friable adj easily crumbled/pulverized AHD/W7
  fricative adj re: frictional passage of breath through narrowing in vocal tract AHD/W7
  friction n (resistance to) moving one thing in contact with another AHD/W7
  frottage n (producing effect via) rubbing AHD
Middle Dutch: brine n brine W7
German: Affrikata n affricate W7
Old Norse: brandr n.masc piece of firewood LRC
Latin: affrico, affricare, affricui, affricatus vb to rub against W7
  friabilis adj friable W7
  frico, fricare, fricui, frictus vb to rub W7
  frictio, frictionis n.fem friction W7
  frio, friare vb to crumble W7
Old French: brisier vb to break W7
  debrisier vb to break to pieces W7
Middle French: débris n.masc debris W7
  debriser vb to break to pieces W7
  dentifrice n.masc toothpaste W7
  frayer, froyer vb to rub, expend W7
  friable adj friable, easily broken W7
  friction n.fem friction W7
French: brisant vb.ptc breaking W7
  briser vb to break W7
  débris n.masc debris W7
  frotter vb to rub AHD
Lithuanian: brezti vb to scratch, sketch RPN
Russian Church Slavic: briju, briti vb to shear, clip RPN
Sanskrit: bhrinati vb to hurt, injure RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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