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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: bhugo-s, familiar form bhukko-s   'buck, goat'

Semantic Field: Goat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: bocc n buck RPN
Middle Irish: bocc n.masc he-goat W7/IED
Breton: bouc'h n buck RPN
Cornish: boch n buck RPN
Welsh: bwch n buck RPN
Old English: bucc n buck, male dear RPN
  bucca n.masc buck, he-goat RPN
Middle English: bocher n butcher W7
  buck n buck W7
English: blesbok n S African highveld antelope with facial blaze AHD/W7
  bontebok n coastal S African antelope AHD
  Brandybuck prop.n hobbit clan in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  buck n male animal (esp. deer) AHD/W7
  Buckland prop.n Shire locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  butcher n one who slaughters animals/dresses their flesh AHD/W7
  gemsbok n large S African oryx AHD/W7
  Oldbuck prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  springbok n small S African brown/white leaping gazelle AHD
  steenbok n small antelope of SE Africa AHD
Frisian: bok n buck ASD
Middle Dutch: boc n buck AHD
Dutch: bok n.masc buck ASD
Afrikaans: blesbok n blesbok, lit. blaze buck W7
  bok n buck W7
  bontebok n bontebok AHD
  gemsbok n gemsbok, lit. chamois buck AHD/W7
  springbok n springbok AHD
  steenbok n steenbok AHD
Old Saxon: buc n.masc buck ASD
Old High German: boc(h) n.masc buck, he-goat W7/ASD
Middle High German: boc n.masc buck, he-goat RPN/ASD
German: Bock n.masc buck, he-goat ASD
  Gemsbock n gemsbok, lit. chamois buck W7
Old Norse: bokki n.masc buck; fellow LRC
Old Icelandic: bukkr/bokkr n buck, he-goat RPN
Icelandic: bokki n.masc buck ASD
Danish: buk n buck ASD
Swedish: bock n.masc buck ASD
Latin: bucca n buck, he-goat RPN
Old French: bouchier n.masc butcher W7
Armenian: buc n lamb RPN
Farsi: buz n goat RPN
Avestan: buza- n buck RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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