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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. dek-   'to take'

Semantic Field: to Take


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dech/deg adj.sup best RPN
  dess adj (on/toward the) right GED
Welsh: deheu adj (on/toward the) right GED
Old English: discipul n disciple W7
Middle English: ambidexter n double-dealer AHD
  condigne adj condign W7
  deignen vb to deign W7
  deinte n dainty W7
  desdeyne n disdain W7
  desdeynen vb to disdain W7
  destrier n destrier W7
  dignete n dignity W7
  disciple n disciple W7
  discipline n discipline W7
  doctour n doctor, teacher W7
  doctrine n doctrine W7
  document n document W7
  indigne adj indign W7
English: ambidextrous adj using either hand with equal ease AHD/W7
  condign adj deserved, appropriate AHD/W7
  dainty n something delicious to taste AHD/W7
  decent adj appropriate AHD/W7
  decor n decoration AHD/W7
  decorate vb.trans to add honor to AHD/W7
  decorous adj correct, marked by propriety/good taste AHD/W7
  deign vb to think something appropriate to one's dignity AHD/W7
  destrier n war-horse AHD/W7
  dexter adj re: right (hand) AHD/W7
  dexterity n grace/readiness in physical activity AHD/W7
  dextro- pfx re: right (hand) AHD
  dignify vb.trans to ennoble, give distinction to AHD/W7
  dignity n worthy/honored/esteemed state AHD/W7
  diplodocus n very large herbivorous dinosaur AHD/W7
  disciple n student who helps spread teacher's doctrines AHD/W7
  discipline n instruction AHD/W7
  disdain n scorn, feeling of contempt/aversion AHD/W7
  disdain vb.trans to look scornfully upon AHD/W7
  docent n teacher, lecturer AHD/W7
  Docetism prop.n Gnostic doctrine: Jesus had no physical body AHD
  docile adj teachable, easily instructed AHD/W7
  doctor n eminent theologian declared sound expounder of doctrine AHD/W7
  doctrine n teaching, instruction AHD/W7
  document n proof, evidence AHD/W7
  dogma n doctrine, belief held as established opinion AHD/W7
  dogmatic adj re: dogma AHD/CDC
  doxology n expression of praise to God AHD/W7
  heterodox adj contrary to/different from acknowledged standard AHD/W7
  indign adj unworthy, undeserving AHD/W7
  indignant adj re: indignation AHD/W7
  indignation n anger due to meanness/injustice/unworthiness AHD/W7
  orthodox adj conforming to official doctrine AHD/W7
  pandect n complete national law code AHD/W7
  paradox n tenet contrary to common belief AHD/W7
  synecdoche n figure of speech: part for whole or whole for part AHD/W7
Old Low Franconian: tesewa n.wk.fem right hand GED
Old High German: gi-zehon vb to arrange RPN
  zes(a)wa n.wk.fem right hand GED
  zesawer adj right GED
  zeso adj right GED
German: Dozent n.masc docent W7
Gothic: *taihswa adj/n.fem right; right hand/side GED
Latin: condignus adj very worthy W7
  decens, decentis adj/vb.ptc fitting W7
  deceo, decere vb to be fitting, proper W7
  decor, decoris n.masc beauty, grace W7
  decoro, decorare, decoravi, decoratus vb to adorn W7
  decorus adj graceful, beautiful W7
  decus n.neut honor, distinction W7
  dexter adj to the right W7
  dexteritas, dexteritatis n.fem dexterity W7
  dextra, dextrae n.fem right hand LRC
  dignitas, dignitatis n.fem dignity, worth W7
  digno, dignare vb to deign, consider worthy W7
  dignus adj worthy W7
  disciplina, disciplinae n.fem learning, discipline, education LRC
  discipulus n.masc pupil W7
  disco, discere, didici, - vb to learn LRC
  docens, docentis vb.ptc re: one who teaches W7
  doceo, docere, docui, doctum vb to teach LRC
  docilis adj docile W7
  doctor, doctoris n.masc teacher LRC
  doctrina, doctrinae n.fem doctrine, what is taught LRC
  doctus, docta, doctum adj learned LRC
  documentum n.neut lesson, proof W7
  dogma, dogmatis n.neut theory, belief W7
  indignans, indignantis adj/vb.ptc indignant W7
  indignor, indignari vb.dep to be indignant W7
  indignus adj unworthy W7
  pandectes n.masc encyclopedic work W7
  paradoxum n.neut paradox W7
Vulgar Latin: disdigno, disdignare vb to disdain W7
Late Latin: ambidexter adj ambidextrous W7
  dignifico, dignificare vb to dignify W7
  discipulus n.masc follower of Jesus Christ in his lifetime W7
  documentum n.neut official paper W7
  heterodoxus adj heterodox, with different doctrine/opinion W7
  orthodoxus adj orthodox, following strict beliefs W7
  Pandectae the Pandects, digest of Roman civil law (6th century A.D.) W7
Medieval Latin: doctor n.masc doctor, teacher W7
  doxologia n.fem doxology W7
New Latin: diplodocus n.masc Diplodocus (kind of dinosaur) W7
Old French: deignier vb to deign W7
  desciple n.masc disciple W7
  desdeign n.masc contempt W7
  desdeignier vb to disdain W7
  destre adj/n.masc/fem right hand W7
  destrier adj right-handed W7
  digneté, deintié n.fem dignity, worth W7
Middle French: condigne adj very worhty W7
  décent adj fitting W7
  desdeignier vb to disdain W7
  dexterité, dexterity n.fem dexterity W7
  dignifier vb to dignify W7
  discipline n.fem teaching, learning, discipline W7
  doctour n.masc doctor, teacher W7
  doctrine n.fem doctrine, teachings of a doctor W7
  document n.masc official paper W7
  indigne adj indign, not worthy W7
  orthodoxe adj orthodox W7
French: décor n.masc decor W7
  décorer vb to decorate W7
Lithuanian: desinas adj right GED
  desine n right hand GED
Old Church Slavonic: desnu' adj right GED
Albanian: djathtë adj (on/toward the) right GED
Mycenaean: de-ki-si-wo adj (on/toward the) right GED
Homeric Greek: dexiê n.fem right hand GED
  dexiós adj (on/toward the) right GED
  dexiterós adj right GED
  dokéô vb to seem, think, fancy LRC
  dokós n.masc beam LRC
  dóxa n.fem view, opinion, expectation LRC
Greek: dektós adj acceptable RPN
  dechesthai vb to receive W7
  déchomai vb to receive LRC
  didáskalos n.masc teacher LRC
  didáskô vb to teach LRC
  didachê n.fem teaching LRC
  dógma n.neut decree, belief, theory, opinion LRC
  ekdechesthai vb to receive, understand W7
  ekdoche n.fem sense, interpretation W7
  heterodoxos adj with a different opinion or belief W7
  eudokía n.fem satisfaction LRC
  pandektes adj all-receiving W7
  paradoxon n.neut paradox W7
  paradoxos adj contrary to expectation W7
  synekdoche n.fem figure of speech in which part is used for whole W7
Late Greek: doxologia n.fem examination of other's opinions W7
  orthodoxos adj orthodox, with a right opinion W7
Classical Armenian: tesanem vb to see LRC
Avestan: dasino adj right GED
Sanskrit: dáksa-h adj fit, able, clever RPN
  dáksinas adj right GED
  dasasyáti vb to serve, oblige, honor RPN
  dasa n condition, circumstance RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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