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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 5. del-   'long'

Semantic Field: Long

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Welsh: dal(a) vb to hold GED
English  
Old English: andlang prep along W7/ASD
  lang adj long LRC
  langian vb to long, yearn W7
  lengan vb.wk to lengthen, prolong W7/ASD
  len(g)ten/lencten n.masc Lent W7/ASD
  lengþu n length W7
  tulge/tylg adv rather GED
Middle English: along adv along W7
  belongen vb to belong W7
  eloynen vb to eloign W7
  lang adj long W7
  lengen vb to prolong W7
  lengeren vb.freq to dwell W7
  lengthe n length W7
  lente n springtime, Lent W7
  ling n ling (fish) W7
  long adj long W7
  longen vb to be suitable W7
  longitude n longitude W7
  Lumbarde prop.n Lombard W7
  oblong adj oblong W7
  prolongen vb to prolong W7
  purloinen vb to put away, render ineffectual W7
English: along adv/prep in same direction, in line parallel with length AHD/W7
  belong vb.intrans to be suitable/appropriate/advantageous AHD/W7
  dolichocephalic adj re: relatively long head AHD/W7
  dolichocranial adj having relatively long skull AHD
  eloign vb.trans to remove to distant/unknown place AHD/W7
  elongate vb to extend in length AHD/W7
  indulge vb to give free choice to AHD/W7
  Langstrand prop.n Gondor coast in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  length n longer/longest dimension of object AHD/W7
  Lent prop.n Christian period of penitence before Easter LRC
  ling n fish in cod family AHD/W7
  linger vb to tarry, be slow to leave AHD/W7
  Lombard prop.n member of Teutonic peoples who invaded/settled N. Italy in 568 A.D. AHD/W7
  long adj extending for significant distance AHD/W7
  long vb.intrans to yearn, feel strong desire/craving AHD/W7
  longeron n major fore-aft structural member of aircraft fuselage AHD
  longhorn n Texas cattle breed LRC
  longitude n length AHD/W7
  Longshanks prop.n epithet for Strider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  longshore adj re: seacoast location AHD
  lounge n public waiting room AHD
  lunge n sudden forward thrust/movement AHD
  oblong adj deviating from square/circular shape through elongation AHD/W7
  prolong vb.trans to continue, lengthen in time AHD/W7
  purloin vb to filch, appropriate wrongfully AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Dutch: langs prep along TLL
  leng n ling (fish) W7
Old Saxon: tulgo adv very GED
Old High German: lang adj long W7
  langen vb to long W7
  lengiz/lenzo n Lent, spring ASD
  lengjan vb to lengthen, prolong ASD
  lenzin n spring W7
German: lang adj long LRC
  Länge n.fem length TLL
  längs prep along TLL
  Lenz n.masc Lent, spring ASD
  verlängern vb to lengthen LRC
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: lengja vb to lengthen, prolong ASD
Danish: langs prep along TLL
Swedish: längs prep along TLL
E-Germanic  
Gothic: ga-tulgjan vb.wk.I to fortify GED
  tulgiþa n firmness, certainty; safety, stronghold GED/ASD
  tulgjan vb.wk.I to confirm, fortify GED/ASD
  tulgus adj firm, steady, steadfast GED
Italic  
Latin: indulgeo, indulgere vb to indulge, grant as a favor GED
  Langobardus n.masc Longobard W7
  longe adv by far LRC
  longitudo, longitudinis n.fem length W7
  longus adj long W7
  oblongus adj oblong W7
Late Latin: elongo, elongare, elongavi, elongatus vb to make long W7
  prolongo, prolongare vb to prolong W7
New Latin: dolich- pfx spear W7
  dolichocephalus adj dolichocephalic W7
Portuguese: longo adj long TLL
Old French: esloigner vb to put further away, to scare away W7
  loing adv far, at a distance W7
  porloigner vb to delay, put off W7
Anglo-French: purloigner vb to delay, put off W7
Middle French: lombard adj Lombard W7
  prolonguer vb to prolong W7
French: allonger vb to extend, prolong, lengthen; lay down AHD
  alongier vb to extend, prolong, lengthen; lay down AHD
  éloigner vb to scare away, put further away W7
  long adj long TLL
Old Italian: lombardo adj Lombard W7
Italian: lungo adj/prep long; along TLL
Baltic  
Lithuanian: ìlgas, ilgà adj long LRC
Latvian: ilgi adj/adv long, for a long time LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: dlu'gu' adj long GED/RPN
  dlu'zo, dlu'ziti vb to extend RPN
Hellenic  
Greek: dolichós adj long GED
  endelechês adj perpetual, continuous GED/RPN
Anatolian  
Hittite: da-lu-ga-as-ti n length GED/RPN
  da-lu-ga-e-es adj long RPN
  ta-lu-ki-(i)s-zi vb.3.sg to become long RPN
Iranian  
Old Persian: darga- adj long GED
Avestan: darugo adj long GED
  drajo n length GED
Indic  
Sanskrit: dirghá-h adj long, tall, deep GED/RPN
  draghate vb to stretch, lengthen GED/RPN
  dragh(i)man n length RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
I=class 1
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
pfx=prefix
prep=preposition
prop=proper
sg=singular (number)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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