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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dem-, demu-   'to build, timber; house, domicile'

Semantic Fields: to Build; House


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: timber n wood, building, structure GED
  timbran, timbrede, timbred vb.wk.I to timber LRC
  timbr(i)an n.str.neut building, material GED
  toft n toft W7
Middle English: beldam n grandmother, old woman W7
  dam(e) n dam, dame, lady W7
  Dan prop.n Dan W7
  daunger n danger W7
  dominioun n dominion W7
  donjon n dungeon W7
  madam(e) n madam W7/AHD
  timber n timber W7
  toft n toft W7
English: beldam n old woman AHD/W7
  belladonna n European poisonous plant AHD/W7
  dam n female parent W7
  dame n woman of rank/station/authority AHD/W7
  Dan prop.n.dim male nickname for Daniel AHD/W7
  danger n jurisdiction AHD/W7
  Despina prop.n satellite of Neptune AHD
  despot n Byzantine emperor/prince AHD/W7
  Dom prop.n.dim male nickname for Dominic LRC
  domain n absolute ownership of land AHD/W7
  dome n mansion, stately building AHD/W7
  domestic adj re: household/family AHD/W7
  domicile n house, abode, place of individual/family residence AHD/W7
  dominate vb to rule AHD/W7
  dominical adj re: Jesus Christ as Lord AHD/W7
  dominie n pedagogue AHD/W7
  dominion n sovereignty, supreme authority AHD/W7
  domino n long loose hooded cloak, part of masquerade costume AHD/W7
  don n Spanish nobleman/gentleman AHD/W7
  Donna prop.n female given name AHD
  duende n attraction by personal charm/magnetism AHD
  dungeon n donjon (massive tower) AHD/W7
  Madam prop.n My Lady [title for married woman] AHD
  madam n lady AHD/W7
  Madonna prop.n Christian title of Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus LRC
  predominate vb to prevail, exert controlling power/influence AHD/W7
  timber n (wood from) growing trees AHD/W7
  timber vb to build/construct with timber W7
  toft n site for dwelling and outbuildings AHD/W7
Old Frisian: timber n.neut timber, material; building, structure GED/ASD
  timbra/timmera vb to timber ASD
  timbria/timmeria vb.wk to timber GED
Dutch: timmeren vb to timber ASD
Old Saxon: ge-timbron vb to timber ASD
  timbar n timber; building, structure GED
  timbrian/timbron vb.wk to timber GED
  timbro/timmero n timberer, carpenter GED
Old Low German: ge-timbran vb to timber ASD
  timbar n.neut timber, material ASD
Old High German: zimbar n.neut timber; room, building W7/ASD
  zimbaren/zimbaron vb.wk to timber GED
  zimber n.str.neut timber, material; building GED
German: Dame n.fem dame, lady LRC
  Domizil n.neut domicile LRC
  Zimmer n.neut room, chamber LRC
  Zimmermann n.masc carpenter, lit. timber-man LRC
  zimmern vb to timber, carpenter LRC
Old Norse: timbra, timbrað vb to timber LRC
  topt n site for homestead W7
Old Icelandic: timbr(a) n timber; building, structure GED
  topt n.fem site, homestead GED
Icelandic: timbr n.neut timber, material ASD
  timbra vb to timber ASD
Danish: dame n dame, lady TLL
  tømre vb to timber ASD
Swedish: dam n dame, lady TLL
  tomt n site, homestead GED
Gothic: *ana-timrjan vb.wk.I to build upon GED
  *ga-timrjan vb.wk.I to build up GED
  *ga-timrjo n.fem building, structure GED
  timreins n.fem building, edification GED
  timrja n.masc timberer, carpenter GED
  *timrjan vb.wk.I to timber, build (up), edify GED
Latin: domesticus, domestica, domesticum adj domestic, re: domicile LRC
  domicilium n.neut domicile, one's house W7
  domina n.fem dame, lady, mistress W7
  dominicus adj of a lord W7
  dominium n.neut domain, ownership W7
  dominor, dominari, dominatus vb to rule, govern W7
  dominus, domini n.masc lord, master LRC
  domus, domi n.fem house, dwelling LRC
  domus, domus n.fem house, dwelling GED
  edomo, edomare, edomui, edomitum vb to conquer, subdue LRC
Vulgar Latin: dominiarium n.neut ownership W7
  *dominicella n.fem.dim young lady AHD
Late Latin: dominicalis adj of Sunday W7
  dominicus adj of Sunday W7
Medieval Latin: dominio, dominionis n.masc lord W7
  domnus n.masc master W7
  domus n.fem church, house W7
  praedominor, praedominari vb.dep to predominate W7
Spanish: don n.masc lord, master W7
Old French: dame n.fem dame, lady, mistress W7
  damisele n.fem young lady AHD
  dongier, dangier n.masc danger, power, domination W7
Middle French: Dan n.masc title of member of religious order W7
  despote n.masc tyrant W7
  domaine/demaine n.masc domain W7
  domestique adj re: house W7
  domicile n.masc one's house W7
  dominion n.masc dominion, empire W7
  donjon n.masc dungeon W7
French: dôme n.masc dome, cathedral W7
  domino n.masc domino, board game W7
  madame n.fem madam AHD
  mademoiselle n.fem girl, lit. my young lady AHD
American French: Madame prop.n.fem Madam AHD
  Mademoiselle prop.n.fem Miss, My Young Lady [title for girl/unmarried woman] AHD
Italian: belladònna n.fem belladonna, deadly nightshade W7/CID
  duomo n.masc cathedral W7
  Madonna n.fem the Madonna, Saint Mary; Lady [title of nobility] W7
Lithuanian: dimstis n estate, farmstead GED
  nãmas n house, dwelling GED
Old Church Slavonic: doma adv at home LRC
  domasi'ni' adj domestic, re: the household LRC
  domu' n.masc house GED
Homeric Greek: dápedon n floor, leveled ground GED
  dómos n.masc home, house, course of bricks GED
   n.neut house, dwelling GED
Greek: démas n form, body, stature GED
  démô vb to join, build, construct GED
  despótês n.masc despot, lord (of the house) GED
  dôma n.neut home, house, building GED
  epoikodomeîn vb to build upon GED
  oikodomeîn vb to build (up), strengthen, edify, benefit GED
Classical Armenian: tun n house GED
Avestan: dam- n house GED
  dumana- n.neut house, building GED
  nmana- n.neut house, building GED
Sanskrit: dám- n house, dwelling GED
  dám-pati- n lord of the house GED
  mana- n.masc house, building GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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