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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: deru-, doru-, dr(e)u-, drou-, dreuu- : dru-   'firm, solid; tree, wood'

Semantic Fields: Hard; Tree, Oak; Wood, Timber


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: dair/daur n oak GED
  derucc n acorn GED
  druid n druid, lit. tree-seer GED
  drui adj knowing certainly GED
Old Breton: dar/deru- n oak GED
Cornish: dar n oak GED
Welsh: dar n oak GED
  derwen n oak GED/RPN
Gaulish: *darik- n larch-tree GED
  Dervus prop.n Oakwood GED
  druides adj knowing certainly GED
  druides n.masc druid, lit. tree-seer W7
  drutas adj firm GED
Old English: te(o)ru n.neut tar, resin GED
  tierwe n.neut tar, resin GED/RPN
  treg/trig n.neut tray, trough W7/ASD
  treo(w) n tree, wood, beam GED
  treow n truth, fidelity W7
  treowan vb to trow W7
  treowe adj true, faithful W7
  treowen adj wooden, of a tree GED
  treowþ n truth, troth W7
  trog/troh n.masc trough W7/ASD
  trum adj strong, firm W7
  truwa n.masc trust, belief GED
  truwian vb.wk to trust GED
  trymian vb to trim W7
  trymman vb to strengthen, arrange W7
Middle English: axeltre n axletree W7
  betrouthen vb to betroth W7
  dour adj dour W7
  duresse n duress W7
  enduren vb to endure W7
  obdurate adj obdurate W7
  tarr/terr n tar W7
  tray n tray W7
  tree n tree W7
  trewe adj true W7
  trewe n agreement W7
  trig adj trig W7
  trimmen vb to prepare, put in order W7
  trost/trust n trust GED
  trough n trough W7
  trouth(e) n truth, troth W7
  trowen vb to trow W7
  trust n trust W7
  tryst n tryst W7
English: axletree n fixed bar/beam with bearings for wheels AHD/W7
  betroth vb.trans to promise to marry/give in marriage AHD/W7
  dendro- pfx tree-like, re: tree(s) AHD
  dendrobium n (genus of) SE Asian orchid AHD/CDC
  dendron n dendrite: protoplasmic nerve-cell process AHD/CDC
  deodar n East Indian cedar AHD/W7
  dour adj harsh, stern AHD/W7
  druid n Celtic priest: seer, wizard, magician AHD/W7
  dryad n wood nymph AHD/W7
  dryopithecine n Old World anthropoid ape of Miocene/Pliocene epoch AHD/W7
  duramen n heartwood AHD/W7
  duress n forcible restraint/restriction AHD/W7
  durum n hardy wheat used for pasta AHD
  endure vb to last, continue in same state AHD/W7
  germander n plant in mint family AHD/W7
  indurate vb to make stubborn/obdurate/unfeeling AHD/W7
  obdurate adj hardened in feelings AHD/W7
  philodendron n aroid flowering plant AHD/W7
  rhododendron n evergreen shrub/tree with showy flowers AHD/W7
  tar n dark brown/black bituminous viscous liquid AHD/W7
  tray n open, low rimmed, flat-bottomed receptacle for holding/carrying/exhibiting articles AHD/W7
  tree n woody perennial plant with single elongated main stem AHD/W7
  Treebeard prop.n Ent a.k.a. Fangorn in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Treegarth prop.n Ent/Huorn enclosure in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  tree-herd n Ent description in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  trig adj smart, stylishly trim AHD/W7
  trim vb to adorn, embellish with lace/ribbons/ornaments AHD/W7
  troth n fidelity, loyal/pledged faithfulness AHD/W7
  trough n long shallow V-shaped receptacle for feeding/watering domestic animals AHD/W7
  trouse n trash, waste, rubbish IEW
  trow vb to trust, believe AHD/W7/GED
  truce n cease-fire, armistice, suspension of fighting AHD/W7
  true adj loyal, steadfast AHD/W7
  true adv truthfully AHD/W7
  trust n reliance on truth/strength/character/ability AHD/W7
  trust vb to hope, be confident, rely/depend on W7
  truth n constancy, fidelity AHD/W7
  tryst n agreement (e.g. between lovers) to meet AHD/W7
British English: trug n shallow oval gardening basket AHD
Old Frisian: trast n trust GED
  tre n.neut tree, wood, beam GED/ASD
  triuwe/treuwe n.fem truth ASD
  triuwe adj true, faithful, trustworthy ASD
  trouwa n.masc trust, faith, belief ASD
Middle Dutch: troose n trust GED
Dutch: teer n tar TLL
Old Saxon: treo/trio/triu n.str.neut tree, beam, cross GED/RPN/ASD
  trewa n.fem truth ASD
  triuwi adj true, faithful, trustworthy ASD
  truon vb.wk to trust, be confident GED
Old Low German: treuwa n.fem treaty, agreement ASD
Middle Low German: truwe n.fem trust, belief GED
Low German: teer n.fem tar GED
Old High German: ga-triuwida n.fem confidence ASD
  gi-triuwi adj true, faithful, trustworthy W7
  triuwa n.fem accord, treaty, agreement ASD
  trog n.masc trough, basin, hollow, channel, cavity ASD
  trost n trust GED
  truwa n.fem trust, belief GED
  tru(w)en vb.wk to trust GED
German: Druide n.masc druid LRC
  getrost adv confidently LRC
  Teer n.masc tar LRC
  trauen vb to trow LRC
  Trost n.masc solace, comfort, consolation GED
Old Norse: traust n trust, agreement W7
  tré n.neut tree; log, beam LRC
  trúa(ð) vb to believe, trust, have faith in LRC
  tryggr adj faithful W7
  öxultre n axletree W7
Old Icelandic: darvi- n.fem ladle GED
  tjara n.neut tar GED
  traust n.neut trust, support, firmness, confidence GED
  tre n tree, wood, beam GED
  tros n trouse IEW
  tru n trust, belief GED
  trua vb.wk to trust GED
  tyrvi n.neut resinous fir-tree GED
Icelandic: tjara n.neut tar, resin, gum ASD
  tra vb to trust, believe ASD
  tré n.neut tree, wood, beam ASD
  trog n.masc trough, tub, basin ASD
  trúa n.masc trust, faith, belief ASD
  tryggð n.fem truce; faith ASD
  tryggr adj true, faithful, trustworthy ASD
Norwegian: treen adj hard GED
Danish: tjære n tar TLL
  træ n tree; wood TLL
Swedish: tjära n tar TLL
  trä n wood TLL
  träd n tree TLL
Gothic: trauains n.fem trust, confidence GED
  trauan vb.wk.III to trust, confide GED
  triggwa n.fem covenant ASD
  triggws adj true, faithful ASD
  *triu n.neut tree, wood, stick, branch; staff GED/RPN
  triweins adj wooden ASD
  weina-triu n.neut vine GED
Latin: druidae, druides druids W7
  dryas, dryadis n.fem dryad W7
  duramen n.neut hardness W7
  duritia, duritiae n.fem hardship, hardness LRC
  durus adj hard W7
  rhododendron n.neut rosebay W7
New Latin: philodendron n.neut (genus of) aroid flowering plant W7
Middle French: duresce n.fem hardness, severity W7
  endurer vb to endure W7
Old Prussian: druwis n belief GED
  druwit vb to believe GED
Lithuanian: dãrva n tar RPN
  dervà n.fem resinous wood GED/RPN
  drutas adj strong GED
  sudrùs/sudrus adj thick, luxuriant (of plants) GED
Latvian: dãrva n tar GED
Old Church Slavonic: drevo n tree GED/RPN
  su'-drav adj healthy GED
Russian: derevo n tree GED
  dromu' n thicket GED
  zdorovyj adj healthy GED
Albanian: dru n.fem tree, wood, bark GED/RPN
Gheg: drû n.masc wood LRC
Macedonian Greek: dárullos n oak GED
Homeric Greek: drumós n.masc wood, forest, oak coppice GED
Greek: déndre(F)on n.neut tree GED
  dóru n tree, wood, beam, spear GED/RPN
  dryas n.fem Dryad, Nymph W7
  drúinos adj oaken GED
  drûs n.fem tree, oak GED
  pithekos n.masc ape W7
  rhododendron n.neut lit. rose-tree W7
  philodendron n.neut lit. lover-of-tree(s) W7
  philodendros adj loving trees W7
Hittite: taru- n wood GED/RPN
Armenian: targal n spoon GED
New Persian: durust adj hale GED
Avestan: dauru- n log, wood(en object) GED/RPN
  drvaena- n wooden RPN
Sanskrit: daru- n log, timber, (piece of) wood GED/RPN
  daruna adj hard W7
  deva n god W7
  devadaru n lit. timber of the gods W7
  drú-h n wood, wood tool RPN
  dru-padá- n post, stake GED
  drumá- n.masc tree GED
  dru-sád- adj perching on a branch? GED
  su-drú- adj of good wood GED
Hindi: deodar n deodar, lit. gods' timber W7
Tokharian: or n wood GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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