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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. deu-, deuu-, dua-, du-   'to pass, move forward'

Semantic Field: to Overtake


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: tyrian/teorian vb.wk to tire, faint, fail, cease W7/ASD
Middle English: durable adj durable W7
  duren vb to last W7
  during prep during W7
  perdurable adj perdurable W7
  tyren vb to tire W7
English: deontology n theory/study of moral obligation AHD/W7
  deuteragonist n actor taking 2nd part in classical Greek drama AHD/W7
  deuterium n hydrogen isotope with one neutron AHD/W7
  deutero- pfx second (2nd) AHD
  Deuteronomy prop.n 2nd statement of Judaic law AHD/CDC
  durable adj able to endure AHD/W7
  durance n imprisonment AHD/W7
  duration n continuance in time AHD
  during prep throughout duration of AHD/W7
  perdurable adj very durable AHD/W7
  thermoduric adj able to survive temperature extremes AHD/W7
  tire vb to become weary AHD/W7
Dutch: gedurende prep during TLL
Old Saxon: far-terian vb to destroy ASD
Middle High German: zouwen vb to hasten, proceed RPN
Latin: durabilis adj lasting W7
  duro, durare vb to harden, endure ELD
  induro, indurare, induravi, induratus vb to harden, make hard ELD
  obduro, obdurare, obduravi, obduratus vb to be hard, hold out ELD
  perduro, perdurare vb to last, endure ELD
Late Latin: perdurabilis adj perdurable W7
New Latin: deuterium n.neut hydrogen isotope W7
Portuguese: durante prep during TLL
Spanish: durante prep during TLL
Old French: durer vb to last W7
  perdurable adj durable W7
Middle French: durable adj lasting W7
  durance n.fem period during which something lasts W7
  durer vb to last W7
Italian: durante prep during TLL
Old Church Slavonic: davi'nu' adj ancient, long-standing RPN
  dave adj ancient, long-standing RPN
Greek: deî it is necessary LRC
  deon n.neut that which is obligatory W7
  deuteragonistes n.masc deuteragonist W7
  deúteros/deuter- adj/pfx second LRC
  dên adv long, far (of time/place) RPN
Hittite: tu-u-wa adv afar, to a distance RPN
  tu-u-wa-la long distance RPN
Old Persian: duradasa adv from afar RPN
  duraiy adv far away, far and wide RPN
  duvaista- adj very long, very far RPN
Avestan: durat adv far RPN
Sanskrit: dávati vb to go RPN
  daváyati vb to remove, make distant RPN
  davisthá-h adj.sup farthest RPN
  dáviyas- adj.comp farther RPN
  dutá-h n envoy, messenger RPN
  durá-h adj far, remote, distant RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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