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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. dhel-, dholo-   'curve; dell, hollow'

Semantic Fields: Hollow, Concave; Dale, Valley


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: dail n dale ASD
Gaelic: dail n dale ASD
Manx: dayll n.fem dale ASD
Cornish: dol n.fem dale ASD
Welsh: dól n dale ASD
Old English: dæl n.neut dale W7/ASD
Middle English: dale n dale W7
  delle n dell W7
English: dale n vale, valley AHD/W7
  dalles river rapids between steep gorge/valley precipices AHD
  dell n small dale, secluded hollow AHD/W7
  Ettendales troll-fells in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Harrowdale prop.n Rohan valley in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Rivendell prop.n elven refuge in Tolkien: The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings LRC
  thalweg n line tracing lowest points in valley/river bed AHD
Old Frisian: de(i)l n dale ASD
Frisian: dalle/dol n dale ASD
Dutch: dal n.neut dale ASD
Old Saxon: dal n.neut dale ASD
Old High German: tal n.neut dell, valley W7/ASD
Middle High German: tal n.neut dale ASD
  telle n ravine W7
German: Thal n.neut dale ASD
Old Norse: dalr n.masc dale, dell, valley LRC
Icelandic: dalr n.masc dale ASD
Danish: dal n.masc/fem dale ASD
Swedish: dal n.masc dale ASD
Gothic: dal n.neut dale ASD
  dalaþ adv down LRC
Old Church Slavonic: dolu adv down(wards), below LRC
Greek: tholos n.masc/fem rotunda W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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