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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 1. dhen-   'to flow, run'

Semantic Fields: to Flow; to Run

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: font n font W7
Middle English: font n font W7
  fontinelle n bodily hollow/pit W7
  fountain n fountain W7
English: font n receptacle for baptismal water AHD/W7
  fontanel n membrane-covered opening in/between bone(s) AHD/W7
  fountain n water spring issuing from earth AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Dutch: fontein n fountain TLL
Italic  
Latin: fons, fontis n.fem spring, fountain, source LRC
  fontanus adj of a spring W7
Late Latin: fontana n.fem fountain W7
Middle French: fontaine n.fem fountain W7
  fontenele n.masc hollow between bones W7
Iranian  
Old Persian: dan- vb to flow RPN
Indic  
Sanskrit: dhanáyati vb to set in motion, to run RPN
  dhánvati vb to run, to flow RPN
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: tseñe n flowing??? RPN
Tocharian A: tsän- vb to flow RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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