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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. dhreugh-   'to harm, deceive'

Semantic Field: to Harm, Injure, Damage


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: drog-/droch- adj bad RPN
Breton: droug/drouk adj bad RPN
Cornish: drog adj bad RPN
Welsh: drwg adj bad, wild, uncivilized RPN
Old English: dream n.str.masc dream, joy, religious ecstasy; noise GED
Middle English: dreem n dream W7
English: dream n deceptive image, thought/emotion experienced during sleep AHD/W7
  Druadan prop.n Woses' forest in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Old Frisian: dram n.str.masc dream GED
Frisian: driech vb.ptc enduring GED
Old Saxon: bi-driogan vb.str.II to deceive GED
  drom n.str.masc dream GED
  gi-drog n mirage GED
Old High German: gi-trog n.str.neut deception GED
  triogan vb.str.II to deceive GED
  troum n.str.masc dream GED
German: Traum n.masc dream LRC
  Trug n fraud, deception RPN
  trügen vb to deceive RPN
Old Icelandic: draugr n.str ghost GED
  draumr n.str.masc dream GED
  drygja vb.wk to carry out GED
Gothic: *driugan vb.str.II to wage/carry on (e.g. campaign) GED
Old Prussian: draktai adv firmly GED
  podruktinai vb to confirm GED
Sanskrit: drúhyati vb to hurt, hate RPN
  droha-h n harm, wrong, treachery RPN
  dhrúk, druh- adj injuring, hurting RPN
Gujarati: droh n malice RPN
Hindi: dho n malice, injury RPN
  dhok(h)a n fear, deceit RPN
Oriya: dhoka n fear, doubt, injury RPN
Sindhi: drohu n deceit RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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