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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. e-, ei-, i-, fem. i-   (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.)

Semantic Field: One


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: begeondan/beiundan adv/prep beyond W7/ASD
  gea adv yea W7
  geo/gio/gu adv already GED
  geon adj yon W7
  geond adv yond W7
  geondan adv beyond W7
  gi(e)f/gyf/gib conj if GED/ASD
  giet adv yet W7
  ilca adj/pron (the) same ASD
  nefne/næfne/nemne conj except, unless, if not GED/ASD
Middle English: beyond adv beyond W7
  -er adv.sfx more/greater W7
  hither adv yonder W7
  if conj if W7
  ilk n/pron ilk; same AHD
  item adv item, in addition, also W7
  ya/ye adv yea, yes W7
  yet adv yet W7
  yon adj yon, yonder W7
  yond adv yonder W7
  yonder adv yonder W7
English: beyond adv farther, on/to far side AHD/W7
  ibidem adv in the same place AHD
  -id sfx secondary allergic skin rash AHD/W7
  id n source of organism's energy from which ego/libido are derived AHD/W7
  id n secondary allergic skin rash AHD/W7
  idem pron same, previously mentioned AHD/W7
  identical adj being the same AHD/W7
  identify vb to establish identity AHD
  identity n sameness of character in different instances AHD/W7
  if conj in the event that AHD/W7
  ilk n type, kind AHD
  item adv also, in addition AHD/W7
  iterate vb.trans to repeat AHD/W7
  reiterate vb.trans to do/say again/repeatedly AHD/W7
  yea adv yes AHD/W7
  yet adv besides, in addition AHD/W7
  yon adj yonder AHD/W7
  yond adv yonder AHD/W7
  yonder adv at/in a more/less distant place AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ie/ge adv yea ASD
  ieta adv yet W7
  jef/jof conj if GED
Frisian: ja adv yea ASD
Dutch: ja adv yea ASD
  of conj or, either, whether TLL
  ofschoon conj although TLL
Old Saxon: ef conj if GED
  giu/ju adv already GED
  ja adv yea ASD
Old High German: giu/ju adv already GED
  iener dem.adj that W7
  ja adv yes W7
Middle High German: ja adv yea ASD
German: er he, it TLL
  es her TLL
  ihm him TLL
  ihn him TLL
  Ihnen you (polite) TLL
  ihnen them TLL
  ihr their TLL
  ihr her TLL
  ihr her TLL
  ja adv yea ASD
  ob conj if, whether TLL
  obgleich conj although TLL
  obschon conj although TLL
Old Norse: ef conj if, lest, whether LRC
  er rel.pcl who, which; when LRC
Old Icelandic: ef/if n.str.neut doubt GED
  efa vb.wk to doubt GED
Icelandic: ja adv yea, yes ASD
Danish: ja/jo adv yea ASD
Swedish: ja/jo adv yea ASD
Gothic: is pers.pron he, she, it LRC
  ita it LRC
  jaind adv yond, there ASD
  ju adv now, already GED
  juþan adv already GED
  saei rel.pron (he) who, which LRC
  þáu adv then, in that case LRC
  ya(i) adv yea ASD
Crimean Gothic: ies pers.pron he CGo
  ita nbr.card one (1) CGo
  *þiinita/thiin-ita nbr.card eleven (10 + 1) GED
Oscan: eíseís pron he RPN
Umbrian: ere pers.pron he, it RPN
  erek, erek pron he, it RPN
  erse pron he, it RPN
Latin: iam adv already LRC
  ibi adv there, then LRC
  ibidem adv ibidem AHD/ELD
  -id n.sfx (patronymic) W7
  id pron.neut it W7
  idem pron the same W7
  ipse, ipsa, ipsum inten.pron self LRC
  is, ea, id dem.pron him, her, this LRC
  -is n.sfx.fem (patronymic) W7
  ita adv thus LRC
  itaque adv and also LRC
  item adv also, the same way LRC
  itero, iterare, iteravi, iteratus vb to repeat, do again W7
  iterum adv again W7
  reitero, reiterare, reiteravi, reiteratus vb to repeat W7
Late Latin: identitas, identitatis n.fem identity W7
Medieval Latin: identicus adj identical W7
French: -ide sfx likeness W7
Lithuanian: jau adv just, already GED
  jéi conj if GED
  jìs, jì pron he, she, it LRC
  õ conj and, but LRC
Latvian: arvien adv all the time, the whole time LRC
  ja conj if GED
  jàu adv already GED
  vienlidzigi adv equally LRC
Old Church Slavonic: eteru' adj one, a certain LRC
  *i dem.pron he LRC
  i adv/conj and, even LRC
  ize rel.pron who, which LRC
  inu' dem.adj this, this one here LRC
  ku'de int.adv when, where LRC
  si'de adv here LRC
  u(ze) adv already GED
  ju(ze) adv already GED
Greek: ei conj if LRC
  ekeî adv there LRC
  ekeînos dem.pron that LRC
  ene adj of the day/year before W7
  éntha adv then, there LRC
  epeán conj when, after LRC
  epeí conj when, after LRC
  epeidê conj after LRC
  épeita adv thereupon LRC
  éôs conj until LRC
  êdé conj and, also LRC
  min pron it LRC
  oîon adv so to say LRC
  oîos adj alone LRC
  ós pron.dem/poss/rel this, that, he, she, it LRC
  ôs adv/conj so, as, thus LRC
Classical Armenian: ayn pron that (over there); he, she, it LRC
  ays dem.adj/pron this, this right here LRC
  et`e conj that; if; or LRC
Avestan: aesa- pron this RPN
Sanskrit: itara n the other W7
  iti conj thus W7
  esá-h pron this RPN
  yád conj if GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
2=2nd person
3=3rd person
acc=accusative (case)
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
gen=genitive (case)
int=interrogative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
nom=nominative (case)
pl=plural (number)
poss=possessive (case)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
ELD=Charlton T. Lewis: An Elementary Latin Dictionary (1999)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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