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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ei-   'to go, exit'

Semantic Field: to Go


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: eode vb.supp.pret.1/ went LRC
  gear/ger/gær n.neut year; (name for) J-rune ASD
  gear-dæg n.masc long ago (lit. year-day) LRC
Middle English: ambition n ambition W7
  circuit n circuit W7
  comencen vb to commence W7
  counte n county W7
  eire n eyre W7
  erraunt adj errant W7
  hour n hour W7
  issue n exit, proceeds W7
  Januarie prop.n January W7
  perisshen vb to perish W7
  preterit adj preterit W7
  pretor n praetor W7
  sedition n sedition W7
  sodain adj sudden W7
  trance n trance W7
  viscounte n viscount W7
  yere n year W7
English: adit n nearly horizontal passage from surface in mine AHD/W7
  ambient adj encompassing, surrounding on all sides AHD/W7
  ambition n desire for rank/fame/power AHD/W7
  anion n ion migrating to anode in electrolyzed solution AHD/W7
  cation n ion migrating to cathode in electrolyzed solution AHD/W7
  circuit n circular line encompassing area AHD/W7
  coitus n sexual intercourse AHD/W7
  comitia n public assembly of Romans to exercise judicial/electoral/legislative function AHD/W7
  commence vb to begin, enter upon AHD/W7
  concomitant adj accompanying, esp. in incidental/subordinate way AHD/W7
  count n European nobleman equivalent to English earl AHD/W7
  county n domain of count AHD/W7
  county n.obs count AHD/W7
  dysprosium n rare-earth element in highly magnetic compounds AHD/W7
  errant adj re: traveling AHD/W7
  exit n departure from stage AHD/W7
  exit vb to leave, go out LRC
  eyre n periodic circuit AHD/W7
  Hinayana prop.n southern conservative branch of Buddhism LRC
  horary adj re: hour AHD/W7
  hour n time for daily liturgical devotion AHD/W7
  initial adj incipient, re: beginning AHD/W7
  initiate vb.trans to start, set going AHD/W7
  introit n first part of mass AHD/W7
  ion n atom with positive/negative electric charge AHD/W7
  issue n proceeds from revenue source (e.g. estate) AHD/W7
  itinerant adj traveling place-to-place AHD/W7
  itinerary n journey's route LRC
  janitor n doorkeeper AHD/W7
  January prop.n 1st month (in Gregorian calendar) AHD/W7
  Janus prop.n god of doors/beginnings (Roman mythology) AHD
  Mahayana prop.n theistic branch of Buddhism, originated in 1st century A.D. LRC
  obituary n notice of person's death AHD/W7
  perish vb to die, become ruined/destroyed AHD/W7
  praetor n Roman judicial magistrate ranking below consul AHD/W7
  preterit adj past, former, bygone AHD/W7
  sedition n inciting resistance to/insurrection against lawful authority AHD/W7
  subito adv suddenly, immediately AHD/W7
  sudden adj coming/happening unexpectedly AHD/W7
  trance n stupor, inability to function AHD/W7
  transient adj short-lived, passing into/out of existence AHD/W7
  transit n passage, act/process/instance of passing through/over AHD/W7
  transitive adj having/containing direct object AHD/W7
  viscount n British peer ranking above baron/below earl AHD/W7
  Yahrzeit prop.n anniversary of relative's death AHD
  year n period of revolution of earth around sun (ca. 365 1/4 days) AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ier/iar/ger n.neut year ASD
Frisian: jier n year ASD
Dutch: horloge n clock, watch TLL
  jaar n.neut year ASD
Old Saxon: ger/jar n.neut year ASD
Low German: ja(a)r n.neut year ASD
Old High German: jar n.neut year W7/ASD
Middle High German: jar n.neut year ASD
  jarzit n.fem anniversary AHD
German: Ja(h)r n.neut year ASD
  Jahrzeit n.fem anniversary AHD
  Uhr n.fem clock, watch TLL
Yiddish: Yahrzeit prop.n.fem Yahrzeit, anniversary AHD
Runic: *jera n year; (name for) J-rune LRC
Old Norse: ár n.neut year; (good) season LRC
Icelandic: ar n.neut year ASD
Danish: aar n.neut year ASD
  ur n clock, watch TLL
Swedish: år n.neut year ASD
Gothic: hváiwa adv how, in what way LRC
  iddja vb.supp.pret went W7/GED
  jer n.str.neut year LRC
Latin: adeo, adire, adii, aditus vb to go to W7
  aditus, aditus n.masc approach W7
  ambiens, ambientis vb.pres.ptc surrounding, going around W7
  ambio, ambire vb to surround, go around W7
  ambitus, ambitus n.masc orbit, cicuit, revolution, circumlocution W7
  circueo, circuire, circuii, circuitus vb to go around W7
  circumeo, circumire vb to go around W7
  coitus, coitus n.masc a coming together W7
  coitus vb.ptc having come together W7
  comes, comitis n.masc companion, one of the imperial court W7
  comitia assembly of the Roman people W7
  comitium n.neut house of the comitia W7
  comitor, comitari vb to accompany W7
  concomitor, concomitari vb to accompany W7
  eo, ire, ii, itus vb to go W7
  exeo, exire, exii, exitum vb to exit, go forth/away LRC
  exitus, exitus n.masc act of going out; destruction W7
  hora n.fem hour W7
  ineo, inire, inii, initus vb to begin, go into W7
  initialis adj first, initial W7
  initio, initiare vb to begin, induct, initiate W7
  initium n.neut beginning W7
  introeo, introire, introii, introitus vb to go in W7
  introitus, introitus n.masc introit, entrance W7
  iter, itineris n.neut way, road, journey LRC
  itio, itionis n.fem act of going W7
  janitor n.masc doorkeeper W7
  janua n.fem door W7
  Januarius prop.n.masc January: month named for Janus W7
  Janus/Ianus prop.n.masc Janus W7
  janus n.masc arch, gate W7
  obitus n.masc decease W7
  perio, perire vb to perish W7
  praeter prep.adv beyond, past, by W7
  praetereo, praeterire vb to go by, pass W7
  praeteritus adj passed in front of, passed W7
  praetor n.masc praetor W7
  seditio, seditionis n.fem separation W7
  subeo, subire vb to come up W7
  subitaneus adj sudden W7
  subito adv suddenly W7
  subitus adj sudden W7
  transeo, transire, transivi, transitus vb to pass, go over/across LRC
  transitus, transitus n.masc a going across W7
  usus, usus n.masc use, practice LRC
  utor, uti, usus vb.dep to use LRC
  vito, vitare, vitavi, vitatus vb to shun, avoid, evade LRC
Vulgar Latin: cominitio, cominitiare vb to commence W7
Late Latin: comes, comitis n.masc count W7
  comitatus n.masc office of a count W7
  hora n.fem hour, season W7
  initio, initiare, initiavi, initiatus vb to begin W7
  itinerans, itinerantis vb.ptc on the road, traveling W7
  itineror, itinerari vb to journey W7
  transitivus adj transitive W7
Medieval Latin: comitatus vb.ptc assembly, retinue W7
  horarius n.masc horary W7
  introitus vb.ptc introduced W7
  itero, iterare vb to travel W7
  obituarium n.neut obituary W7
  vicecomes, vicecomitis n.masc viscount W7
New Latin: dysprosium n.neut a chemical element W7
Old French: ambition n ambition AHD
  conté n.masc county W7
  erre n.masc/fem trip W7
  errer vb to travel W7
  heure n.fem hour W7
  issir vb to go/come out W7
  issue n.fem exit W7
  perir, periss- vb to perish W7
Anglo-French: eire n.fem trip W7
Middle French: ambition n.fem ambition W7
  circuite n.masc circuit W7
  comencer vb to start W7
  comte n.masc count W7
  initial adj first, beginning W7
  introite adj introit, internal W7
  issue n.fem end, exit, result W7
  sedition n.fem separation W7
  sodain adj sudden W7
  transe n.fem trance W7
  transir vb to swoon, pass away W7
  viscomte n.masc viscount W7
French: errant adj one who errs/wanders W7
  errer vb to err, wander, travel W7
  heure n hour TLL
Italian: subito adj quick, sudden W7
Old Prussian: eit vb to go LRC
Lithuanian: eiti vb to go LRC
Old Church Slavonic: iti, ido, idesi vb to go LRC
Homeric Greek: eîmi vb to go, come LRC
Greek: anienai vb to go up W7
  anion vb.ptc going up W7
  dysprositos adj hard to get at W7
  epíeimi vb to come near LRC
  ienai vb to go AHD
  katienai vb to go down W7
  prosienai vb to approach W7
  prositos adj approachable W7
  hora n.fem hour, time, season W7
Hittite: i-it vb to go LRC
  iyatta(ri) vb to proceed LRC
Avestan: aeiti vb to go LRC
Sanskrit: éti vb to go W7
  mahayana n theistic branch of Buddhism, lit. great vehicle W7
  hinayana n southern conservative branch of Buddhism, lit. lesser vehicle W7
Tocharian A: ya- vb to go LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
pret=preterite (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
supp=suppletive (form)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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