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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. eis-   'to move rapidly/violently'

Semantic Fields: to Move; Fast, Swift, Quick


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: iren/ise(r)n n.neut iron, implement made thereof ASD
  ofost/of(o)st/ofest n.fem zeal, haste W7/ASD
Middle English: gisarme n gisarme W7
  iron n iron W7
English: estrogen n sex hormone promoting estrus (etc.) in female AHD/W7
  estrone n estrogenic hormone AHD/W7
  estrus n heat, regularly recurrent state during which female mammal is able to conceive AHD/W7
  gisarme n weapon on long staff carried by medieval foot soldiers AHD/W7
  hierarch n religious leader in position of authority AHD/W7
  hierarchy n (body of) persons with authority AHD
  hieratic adj re: ancient Egyptian cursive writing (simpler than hieroglyphic) AHD/W7
  hier(o)- pfx holy, sacred AHD
  hierodule n temple slave (in ancient Greece) AHD
  Irensaga prop.n mountain in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  iron n heavy magnetic ductile/malleable metal AHD/W7
  Isen prop.n river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Isengard prop.n Saruman's fortress in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Isengrim prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  spiegeleisen n variety of pig iron AHD/W7
Old Frisian: isern n iron (implement) ASD
Dutch: ijzer n iron TLL
Old Saxon: isarn n iron (implement) ASD
Old Low German: isarn n iron, steel ASD
Old High German: isarn/isen n iron (implement) W7/ASD
German: Eisen n iron (implement) W7
  eisern adj of iron LRC
  Spiegeleisen n spiegeleisen W7
Old Norse: isarn n iron (implement) IEW
Icelandic: járn/isarn n iron (implement) ASD
Danish: jern n iron (implement) ASD
Swedish: järn n iron (implement) ASD
Gothic: eisarn n iron, iron fetter ASD
Latin: hieraticus adj hieratic, sacerdotal W7
  oestrus n.masc estrus, frenzy, gadfly W7
Medieval Latin: hierarcha n.masc hierarch W7
New Latin: estrus n.masc estrus W7
Middle French: hierarche n.masc hierarch W7
Greek: hierarches n.masc priest, hierarch W7
  hieratikos adj hieratic, re: priests W7
  ierón n.neut temple LRC
  ierós adj holy, sacred LRC
  oîmai vb.dep to think LRC
  oíomai vb to think, imagine LRC
  oistros n.masc estrus, frenzy, gadfly W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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