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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ekuo-s   'horse'

Semantic Field: Horse (generic)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ech n horse LRC
Welsh: ebol n foal GED
Gaulish: epo- n.afx horse GED
  Epona prop.n lit. horse-goddess GED
Old English: eoh n.str.masc horse; (name for) E-rune GED
  eored/eorod n.neut cavalry band/troop, lit. horse-ride(rs) ASD
English: eohippus n small 4-toed Lower Eocene horse of N. America AHD/W7
  Éomer prop.n Eastmark marshal/hero in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Éomund prop.n chief marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Éored prop.n cavalry unit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Éothain prop.n horse-thane in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Éothéod prop.n Eorl's descendants in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Éowyn prop.n Rohan shield-maiden heroine in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  equestrian adj re: horseback riding AHD/W7
  equine adj re: horse AHD/W7
  equitant adj overlapping transversely at base AHD/W7
  equitation n riding on horseback AHD/W7
  hippocampus n curved elongated ridge in lateral ventricle of brain AHD/W7
  Hippocrene prop.n fountain on Mt. Helicon sacred to the Muses (Greek mythology) LRC
  hippodrome n oval stadium for horse/chariot races AHD/W7
  hippogriff n legendary animal, lit. horse-griffin AHD/W7
Old Saxon: ehu- n.afx horse GED
Runic: *ehwaz n horse; (name for) E-rune LRC
Old Icelandic: jor n.str.masc horse GED
Gothic: aíhva- n horse LRC
  *aihva-tundi n.fem bramble, prickly bush, lit. horse-thorn GED
Latin: equa n.fem mare GED
  eques, equitis n.masc horseman, knight LRC
  equester adj of a horseman W7
  equinus adj of a horse W7
  equito, equitare vb to ride on horseback W7
  equus n.masc horse GED
  hippo- pfx horse W7
  Hippocrene n.fem Hippocrene W7
  hippodromos n.masc hippodrome W7
New Latin: eohippus n.masc eohippus W7
  hippocampus n.masc hippocampus W7
Middle French: hippodrome n.masc hippodrome W7
French: hippogriffe n.masc hippogriff W7
Italian: ippo- pfx horse W7
  ippogrifo n.masc hippogriff W7
Lithuanian: asvà n.fem mare GED
Mycenaean: itho n horse LRC
Greek: ippeús n.masc horseman LRC
  hippodromos n.masc hippodrome W7
  hippokampos n.masc sea horse W7
  Hippokrene prop.n.fem Hippocrene W7
  íppos n.masc horse LRC
Luwian: á-sù-wa n horse LRC
Old Persian: asa- n.afx horse LRC
  aspa- n.afx horse GED
Avestan: aspo/aspa- n/afx horse GED
Sanskrit: ásvas n horse GED
  ásva n mare GED
Tocharian B: yakwe n horse LRC
Tocharian A: yuk n horse LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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