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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: enek-, nek-, enk-, nk-   'to reach, obtain'

Semantic Fields: to Reach, Arrive; to Get, Obtain


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ro-icc vb to reach GED
Old English: ful(l)-neah/ful-neh adv almost, very nearly, lit. full-near ASD
  ge-neah adj/n.neut adequate; abundance, sufficiency GED/ASD
  genog/genoh adj enough GED
  neah/neh, near adv nigh, nearer ASD
  neah-gebur/neh(e)-bur n.masc neighbor, lit. nigh-dweller AHD
Middle English: ner adv nearer W7
  nigh adv nigh W7
  ynough adj enough W7
English: enough adj sufficient in scope/quality/quantity to satisfy need/demand AHD/W7
  near adv/prep nigh, within; at, close to W7
  neighbor n one living/located nearby W7
  nigh adj/adv/prep near(ly), close to W7
  oncogenesis n tumor formation/development AHD
  oncology n study of tumors AHD/W7
  pice n former monetary unit in India/Pakistan: 1/64 rupee AHD/W7
Old Frisian: (e)noch adj enough GED
  ni/nei adv nigh ASD
  nogia vb.wk to be adequate GED
Dutch: na prep/conj after TLL
  naar prep to, toward TLL
  nadat conj after TLL
Old Saxon: ginog/ginoh adj enough GED
  nah adv/prep nigh ASD
Old High German: ganoc/ginuog adj enough GED
  ge-nah adj adequate GED
  gi-nuogan vb.wk to be adequate GED
  nah adj/adv/prep nigh, near, after W7/ASD
  nah-gibur n neighbor, lit. nigh-dweller W7
German: genug adj enough LRC
  genügen vb to be adequate LRC
  nach prep to, along, after TLL
  nachdem conj after TLL
Old Norse: gnógr adj enough, plenty LRC
  ná, náð vb to get, obtain LRC
  ná-, nær, næst adv nigh, nearer, nearest W7/ICE
Old Icelandic: (g)nogr adj enough GED
  (g)noegja vb.wk to be adequate GED
Icelandic: nær adv nearer ASD
Danish: naar conj when TLL
Swedish: när conj when TLL
Gothic: *bi-nauhan vb.ptpr.V to be allowed/permitted GED
  *ga-nauhan vb.ptpr.V to suffice GED
  *ga-nohjan vb.wk.I to be content GED
  ga-nohs adj enough LRC
  nehva prep nigh, near LRC
Latin: nanciscor, nancisci vb.dep to get, attain GED
Lithuanian: nèsti, nesù vb to carry GED
Latvian: nakt, naku, nacu vb to come LRC
Old Church Slavonic: nesti, neso, nesesi vb to bring LRC
  neso vb to reach, arrive GED
Greek: enegkeîn vb to carry GED
  ógkos n.masc mass, burden GED
Hittite: ninikzi vb to lift GED
Classical Armenian: hasanem vb to approach, arrive; reach, obtain LRC
Avestan: asnaoiti vb to gain GED
  nasaiti vb to gain GED
Sanskrit: ámsas n part, portion GED
  asnóti vb to gain GED
  namsas n acquisition GED
  násati vb to gain GED
Hindi: paisa n pice W7
Tocharian B: enk- vb to hold, seize, carry GED
Tocharian A: ents- vb to hold, seize, carry GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
V=class 5
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
ptpr=preterite-present (verb)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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