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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: 2. ere-s-, ers-, rs-, eres-, and res-, ros-   'to flow'

Semantic Field: to Flow

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: eorre/ierre adj irate, wandering, embittered GED
  eorre n.neut ire ASD
  eorsian/yrsian vb.wk to make irate GED
  ræs n.masc rush, race W7/ASD
  ræsan, ræsde, ræsed vb.wk.I to rush, hasten LRC
Middle English: erratic adj erratic W7
  erren vb to err W7
  erroneous adj erroneous W7
  errour n error W7
  ire n ire GED
  ras n race W7
  rosmarine n rosemary W7
English: aberrant adj abnormal, deviating from proper/expected course AHD
  aberration n act of strayng from normal state/moral standard AHD/W7
  drosera n insectivorous plant in sundew family AHD/W7
  drosophila n small two-winged fly AHD/W7
  err vb.intrans to stray AHD/W7
  errant adj roving, traveling, seeking adventure AHD/W7
  erratic adj wandering, having no fixed course AHD/W7
  erratum n corrigendum AHD/W7
  erroneous adj wandering AHD/W7
  error n mistake, ignorant/imprudent act/condition deviating from norm AHD/W7
  irascible adj hot-tempered, easily provoked AHD/W7
  irate adj angry, wrathful LRC
  ire n wrath, anger GED
  race n act of running AHD/W7
  rishi n divinely inspired Indian poet/sage AHD
  rosemary n fragrant shrubby mint AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: irre adj irate, embittered GED
Old Saxon: irrean vb.wk to err, confuse GED
  irri adj irate, embittered GED
Old High German: irran vb.wk to err, confuse GED
  irri adj irate, perplexed GED
  irrida n.wk.masc sin, error GED
  irron vb.wk to be confused GED
Middle High German: irre n.str.fem sin, error GED
German: irr adj irate LRC
  irren vb to err LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: ras n race W7
Icelandic: rás n.fem race, running ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: af-airzjan vb.wk.I to deceive; stray, be misled GED
  *airzei n.fem heresy GED
  *airzeis adj deceived, in error GED
  *airzjan vb.wk.I to mislead GED
Italic  
Latin: aberro, aberrare, aberravi, aberratus vb to go astray W7
  erraticus adj erratic W7
  erratum n.neut erratum, mistake W7
  erro, errare, erravi, erratus vb to err, wander W7
  erro, erronis n.masc wanderer, vagabond W7
  erroneus adj erroneous W7
  error, erroris n.masc error, mistake, wandering LRC
  ira, irae n.fem ire LRC
  irascor, irasci vb to be(come) irate W7
  rorarii n.masc.pl skirmishers W7
  ros, roris n.masc dew W7
  rosmarinus n.masc rosemary W7
Late Latin: irascibilis adj easily angered W7
New Latin: drosera n.fem genus: plants in sundew family W7
  drosophila n.fem genus: small fly W7
Old French: errer vb to err, travel W7
  errour n.fem error W7
  ire n.fem ire W7
Middle French: erratique adj erratic W7
  irascible adj irascible W7
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: areiê n threatenings GED
Greek: Árês n.masc Ares LRC
  droseros adj dewy W7
  drosos n.fem dew W7
  eroe n.fem respite W7
Anatolian  
Hittite: arsanai- vb to envy, grow angry GED
Armenian  
Armenian: eram vb to seethe, be disquieted GED
  her n ire GED
Iranian  
Old Persian: arshan- n man, hero AHD
  khshayarshan- vb.ptc lit. ruling over men AHD
Avestan: arusyant- adj envious GED
Indic  
Sanskrit: irasyáti vb to be irate GED
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: arsaklai n snake GED
Tocharian A: arsal n poisonous reptile GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
ptc=participle
str=strong (inflection)
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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