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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ger-, gere-   'to cram, collect, put together'

Semantic Fields: to Gather, Collect; to Join, Unite


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: gre n herd RPN
Old English: crammian vb to cram, stuff RPN
Middle English: aggregat adj aggregate W7
  allegorie n allegory W7
  congregaten vb to congregate W7
  crammen vb to cram W7
English: aggregate adj formed into mass/body/amount by collection of units/particles AHD/W7
  agora n assembly, marketplace, gathering place AHD/W7
  agoraphobia n abnormal fear of crossing/being in open spaces AHD/W7
  allegory n expression of truths/generalizations via symbolic fictional figures/actions AHD/W7
  category n general class to which something belongs AHD/W7
  congregate vb to assemble, collect into group/crowd AHD/W7
  cram vb to jam, pack tight AHD/W7
  egregious adj distinguished AHD/W7
  gregarious adj social, associating with others AHD/W7
  panegyric n eulogistic oration/writing AHD/W7
  segregate vb to isolate, separate/set apart from others/general mass AHD/W7
Old Icelandic: kremja vb to squeeze (esp. berries) RPN
Latin: aggrego, aggregare, aggregavi, aggregatus vb to add to, gather together W7
  allegoria n.fem allegory W7
  congrego, congregare, congregavi, congregatus vb to collect into a flock W7
  egregius adj remarkable, illustrious W7
  gregarius adj re: group/herd W7
  grex, gregis n.masc flock, group, herd RPN
  panegyricus n.masc praise, laudatory song/speech W7
  segrego, segregare, segregavi, segregatus vb to cast apart W7
Late Latin: categoria n.fem category W7
New Latin: agoraphobia n.fem fear of crowds W7
Latvian: gùrste n bundle of flax RPN
Polish: garnac vb to gather RPN
Russian: gorst´ n cupped hand RPN
Ukrainian: (pry)hortáty vb to clasp RPN
Greek: ageírô vb to gather, collect RPN
  agora n.fem agora, public place W7
  agorein vb to speak publicly W7
  agyris n.fem assembly W7
  allegorein vb to speak figuratively W7
  allegoria n figurative speech W7
  kategorein vb to accuse, affirm, predicate W7
  kategoria n.fem affirmation, category W7
  panegyrikos n.masc praise, laudative song or speech W7
  panegyris n.fem festival assembly W7
Sanskrit: grama-h n heap, crowd, community RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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