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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ger-   (onomatopoeic: to crow, shriek, etc.)

Semantic Fields: Sound (n); Various Cries


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: garan n.masc crane ASD
Gaelic: crac vb to crack ASD
  garan n.masc crane ASD
Cornish: garan n.fem crane ASD
Welsh: garan n.fem crane RPN/ASD
Gaulish: garanos cranes RPN
Old English: ceorcian vb to complain RPN
  ce(o)rian/ceorigan/ciorian vb to murmur, grumble RPN/ASD
  ceorran vb to creak RPN
  cracian vb to crack W7
  cran n crane RPN
  cranoc/cornuc n crane RPN
  crawan vb to crow W7
  crawe n.fem crow W7/ASD
Middle English: crake n crake W7
  crakken vb to crack W7
  cran n crane W7
  crowe n crow W7
  crowen vb to crow W7
  croynen vb to croon W7
  cur n cur W7
  curdogge n cur dog W7
  curren vb to growl W7
  krakenelle n cracknel W7
  pedegru n pedigree W7
English: crack vb to make sharp explosive sound (as if) in breaking AHD/W7
  cracknel n hard brittle biscuit AHD/W7
  crake n rail (kind of bird) AHD/W7
  cranberry n bright red acid berry AHD/W7
  crane n tall wading bird AHD/W7
  croon vb to boom, bellow AHD/W7
  crow, crew vb.str/wk to make loud shrill sound like rooster W7
  crow n glossy black oscine bird AHD/W7
  cur n mongrel/inferior dog AHD/W7
  geranium n plant having flowers without spurs AHD/W7
  grackle n Old World starling AHD/W7
  pedigree n register recording ancestral line AHD/W7
  Stormcrow prop.n epithet for Gandalf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Frisian: krie n crow ASD
Middle Dutch: cronen vb to croon W7
Dutch: korren vb to coo (as pigeons) ASD
  kraai n.fem crow ASD
  kraaijen vb to crow ASD
  kraan n.fem crane ASD
  kraken vb to crack ASD
Old Saxon: kraia n.fem crow ASD
  krano n crane RPN
Low German: kraan n crane W7
  kraanbere n cranberry W7
Old High German: kerren vb to murmur, chatter ASD
  krachjan/krachon vb to crack ASD
  krahan/krajan vb to crow ASD
  krano n crane W7
  kranuh n.masc crane RPN/ASD
  kra(w)a n.fem crow W7/ASD
  queran vb to creak, murmur ASD
Middle High German: kërren/kirren vb to murmur, complain ASD
  kra n.fem crow ASD
  krachen vb to crack ASD
  kræjen vb to crow ASD
  kranech n.masc crane ASD
German: kerren vb to murmur, make a harsh sound ASD
  krachen vb to crack ASD
  Krähe n.fem crow ASD
  krähen vb to crow ASD
  Kranich n.masc crane ASD
Old Norse: kraka n crow W7
  krakr n raven W7
  trana n crane KNW
Icelandic: trana n.fem crane ASD
  trani n.masc crane ASD
Danish: krage n crow TLL
  trane n.masc/fem crane ASD
Swedish: kran n water tap; crane: machine SAO/TLL
  kråka n crow TLL
  trana n.fem crane: bird ASD
Latin: geranium n.neut geranium W7
  graculus n.masc grackle, jackdaw W7
  grus n.masc/fem crane RPN
New Latin: geranium n.neut geranium W7
Old Prussian: gerwe n crane RPN
Lithuanian: garnys n heron RPN
  gérve n crane RPN
Old Church Slavonic: zeravi' n crane RPN
Greek: geranion n.neut geranium W7
  géranos n.masc/fem crane RPN
Armenian: krunk n crane RPN
Sanskrit: járate vb to call to; crackle (of fire) RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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