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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: geus-   'to taste, degust, enjoy'

Semantic Fields: to Taste (subj); to Taste (obj); to Please

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: asagussi vb to wish LRC
  Fergus prop.n [personal name re:] excellence GED
  guss n excellence GED
  Oengus prop.n [personal name re:] excellence GED
  togu vb to select GED
English  
Old English: ceosan vb.str to choose, test GED
  cost n.masc object of choice, excellence GED
  cyre n.masc selection GED
  ge-kor n.str decision GED
  un-ge-coren vb.past.ptc vile GED
  wælcyrige n witch W7
Middle English: chois n choice W7
  chosen vb to choose W7
  guste n gust W7
English: choice n selection, act of choosing AHD/W7
  choose, chose, chosen vb.str to select after consideration AHD/W7
  degust vb.trans to taste, savor AHD/W7
  disgust vb to be offensive, provoke loathing/aversion/repugnance AHD/W7
  gust n sensation of taste AHD/W7
  gustation n act/sensation of tasting AHD/W7
  gusto n liking, taste AHD/W7
  ragout n well-seasoned meat/vegetables cooked in thick sauce AHD/W7
  Valkyrie prop.n maiden of Odin: chooses hero to be slain, guides him to Valhalla (Norse mythology) LRC
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: kiasa/tziesa vb.str to choose, test GED/ASD
Frisian: kiezjen/tziezjen vb to choose ASD
Dutch: keur n.fem choice ASD
  keuren vb to test GED
  kiezen vb to choose ASD
Old Saxon: cust n.masc object of choice, excellence GED
  kiosan/keosan vb.str to choose, taste, test GED/ASD
  koron vb.wk to test, taste GED
  koston vb to attempt GED
Low German: koren vb to taste GED
Old High German: cost n.masc estimate, selection GED
  gi-coron vb.wk to test, taste GED
  kiosan/kiusan vb.str to choose, taste, test GED/ASD
  koron vb.wk to test, taste GED
  koston vb.wk to test GED
  kuri/churi n.fem selection GED/ASD
Middle High German: kiusen/kiesen vb to choose ASD
  kur(e) n.fem election, examination ASD
German: kiesen vb to choose ASD
  kosten vb to degust LRC
  Kur/Kür/Chur n.fem choice, election ASD
  Walküre prop.n Valkyrie, lit. chooser of slain W7
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: kostr n.masc choice, alternative; chance, opportunity LRC
  Valkyrie prop.n Valkyrie: minor divinity (Norse mythology) W7
Old Icelandic: kjosa vb.str to choose, test GED
  kor n.str decision GED
  kosta vb to try GED
  kostr n.masc selection GED
Icelandic: keyr/kjörr n.neut choice ASD
  kjosa vb to choose ASD
  u-kjörligr adj wretched ASD
  val-kyrja n.fem Valkyrie, lit. chooser of slain ASD
Danish: kaar n.neut choice ASD
  keise vb to choose ASD
Swedish: kor n choice ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: kausjan vb.wk.I to experience GED
  *kiusan vb.str.II to choose, test GED
  un-gakusans adj unchosen, rejected ASD
  us-kiusan vb.str.II to reject, not choose GED
Italic  
Latin: degusto, degustare vb to taste, degust W7
  gustatio, gustationis n.fem sense of taste W7
  gusto, gustare, gustavi, gustatus vb to taste W7
  gustus n.masc taste, tasting GED
Spanish: gusto n.masc taste W7
Old French: chois n choice W7
Middle French: desgouster vb to disgust, dislike taste of W7
  goust n.masc taste W7
French: ragoût n.masc stew W7
  ragoûter vb to revive taste, stir appetite W7
Albanian  
Albanian: desha vb.1.sg.pret I loved GED
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: geúomai vb to taste LRC
Iranian  
Old Persian: daus vb to taste LRC
  daustar- n friend GED
Avestan: zaos- vb to taste, be pleased GED
Indic  
Sanskrit: jusáte vb to enjoy GED
  jústis n favor GED
  jósati vb to taste LRC
  jostár- adj loving GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
I=class 1
II=class 2
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pret=preterite (tense)
prop=proper
ptc=participle
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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