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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers lacking Unicode® support, or having less than full Unicode 2.0 font support. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 3 and Unicode 2) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghabh-   'to take, grab, seize'

Semantic Field: to Grasp, Seize, Take Hold of


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: ga(i)bid vb to take, seize GED/RPN
Old English: æt-geofa/æt-gi(e)fa n.masc food-giver ASD
  forgifan, forgeaf, forgeafon, forgiefen vb.str.V to give, grant LRC
  gafol/gafel/gaful n.neut gavel W7/ASD
  gi(e)fan/geofan/giofan/gyfan vb.str.V to give GED/RPN/ASD
  giefu n.str.fem gift, favor; (name for) R-rune LRC
Middle English: able adj able W7
  bitakle n binnacle W7
  debentur n debenture W7
  debte, dette n debt W7
  dever n duty W7
  devoir n devoir W7
  due adj due W7
  duete n duty W7
  endeveren vb to exert oneself W7
  enhabiten vb to inhabit W7
  exhibiten vb to exhibit W7
  forgiven vb to forgive W7
  gavel n gavel W7
  gift n gift W7
  given vb to give W7
  habit n habit W7
  inhibiten vb to inhibit W7
  maladie n malady W7
  prebende n prebend W7
  prohibiten vb to prohibit W7
  provender n provender W7
English: able adj having sufficient skill/power/resources to accomplish goal AHD/W7
  binnacle n box/case/stand containing ship's lamp/compass AHD/W7
  cohabit vb.intrans to live together like husband/wife AHD/W7
  debenture n writing/certificate signed by public official as evidence of debt/rights to monetary sum AHD/W7
  debit n record of indebtedness AHD/W7
  debt n sin, trespass AHD/W7
  devoir n duty, responsibility AHD/W7
  due adj owed/owing as debt AHD/W7
  duty n respect, conduct due to parents/superiors AHD/W7
  endeavor vb to strive to reach/achieve AHD/W7
  exhibit vb to present to view AHD/W7
  forgive, forgave, forgiven vb.str to pardon, cease to feel resentment AHD/W7
  gavel n rent/tribute in ancient/medieval England AHD/W7
  gift n notable talent/capacity AHD/W7
  give, gave, given vb.str to make present of AHD/W7
  habile adj able, skillful AHD/W7
  habit n clothing AHD/W7
  habitable adj suitable for living in/on AHD
  habitant n inhabitant AHD
  habitat n place/site where plant/animal normally/naturally lives/grows AHD/W7
  inhabit vb to live in, occupy as habitat/place of residence AHD/W7
  inhabitant n one who inhabits (a place) AHD
  inhibit vb to forbid/prohibit from doing AHD/W7
  malady n bodily disease/disorder of animal AHD/W7
  prebend n endowment held by cathedral/collegiate church for maintenance AHD/W7
  prohibit vb.trans to enjoin, forbid by authority AHD/W7
  provender n feed, dry food for cattle/horses AHD/W7
Old Frisian: geva/jeva vb.str to give GED/RPN/ASD
  geve n.str.fem gift GED
Dutch: geven vb to give LRC
Old Saxon: geba n.str.fem gift GED
  geban vb.str to give GED/RPN
Old High German: geba n.str.fem gift GED/RPN
  geban vb.str to give GED/RPN
Middle High German: gæbe n welcome GED
German: Gabe n.fem gift LRC
  geben vb to give LRC
Runic: *gebo n gift; (name for) G-rune LRC
  gibu I give GED/RPN
Old Norse: gefa vb.str to give LRC
  gift n gift W7
Old Icelandic: gjof n.str.fem gift GED
  gæfa n.fem luck GED
  gæfr adj pleasant GED
Icelandic: gefa vb to give ASD
Danish: give vb to give LRC
Old Swedish: giva vb to give W7
Swedish: giva vb to give LRC
Gothic: fra-giban vb.str.V to give, bestow LRC
  *fra-gifts n betrothal, presentation RPN
  gabei n.fem riches GED/RPN
  giban vb.str.V to give, yield LRC
  us-giban vb.str.V to repay, present LRC
Umbrian: habe vb to take, receive, have RPN
Latin: debeo, debere, debui, debitus vb to owe, have the duty of W7
  debitum n.neut debt, thing due W7
  exhibeo, exhibere, exhibui, exhibitus vb to show openly W7
  habeo, habere, habui, habitum vb to have, hold GED/RPN
  habilis, habilis, habile adj apt, fit, handy, skillful W7
  habitaculum n.neut dwelling place W7
  habito, habitare vb to dwell W7
  habitus, habitus n.masc condition, character W7
  inhabito, inhabitare vb to inhabit W7
  inhibeo, inhibere, inhibui, inhibitus vb to hold back W7
  praebendus vb.ger.masc things to be granted W7
  praebeo, praebere, praebui, praebitus vb to offer, provide LRC
  prohibeo, prohibere, prohibui, prohibitus vb to inhibit, hold away W7
Vulgar Latin: debita n.fem debt W7
Late Latin: cohabito, cohabitare vb to inhabit in common W7
  praebenda n.fem subsistence allowance granted by the state W7
Medieval Latin: praebenda n.fem prebend W7
  provenda n.fem food for domestic animals W7
Old Portuguese: bitácola n.fem dwelling place W7
Portuguese: haver vb to have TLL
Old Spanish: bitácula n.fem dwelling place W7
Spanish: gabela n tax, tribute ASD
  haber vb to have TLL
Old French: dette n.fem something owed W7
  deveir, devoir vb to owe, be obliged W7
  habit n.masc clothing W7
  malade adj sick W7
  maladie n.fem sickness W7
Anglo-French: dueté n.fem duty W7
Middle French: able adj apt W7
  deu vb.ptc owed W7
  devoir vb to owe W7
  enhabiter vb to inhabit W7
  prébende n.fem stipend of a clergyman W7
  provende n.fem abundance W7
  provendre vb to give to W7
French: avoir vb to have TLL
  gabelle n tax, tribute ASD
  habile adj skillful, clever W7
Italian: avere vb to have TLL
  gabella n tax, tribute ASD
Lithuanian: gãbana n armful (of hay) GED/RPN
  gabanà n armful GED/RPN
  gabenù, gabénti vb to take away GED
Khotanese: ggostä n handful RPN
Sanskrit: gábhasti-h n arm, hand GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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